Expositio Salutationis angelicae

Thomas Aquinas

translated by Joseph B. Collins

New York, 1939

Edited and Html-formated by Joseph Kenny, O.P.

Note: The Hail Mary or Angelical Salutation or Ave Maria in the time of St. Thomas consisted only of the present first part of the prayer. The second part—“Holy Mary, Mother of God,” etc.—was added by the Church later.

Prooemium Introduction
In salutatione ista continentur tria. Unam partem fecit Angelus, scilicet ave gratia plena, dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus. Aliam partem fecit Elisabeth, mater Ioannis Baptistae, scilicet benedictus fructus ventris tui. Tertiam partem addidit Ecclesia, scilicet Maria: nam Angelus non dixit, ave Maria, sed ave, gratia plena. Et hoc nomen, scilicet Maria, secundum suam interpretationem convenit dictis Angeli, sicut patebit. This salutation has three parts. The Angel gave one part, namely: “Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with you, blessed art you among women” [Lk 1:28]. The other part was given by Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, namely: “Blessed is the fruit of your womb” [Lk 1:42]. The Church adds the third part, that is, “Mary,” because the Angel did not say, “Hail, Mary,” but “Hail, full of grace.” But, as we shall see, this name, “Mary,” according to its meaning agrees with the words of the Angels.

Articulus 1

Ave Maria gratia plena, dominus tecum
Article 1

“Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you”
Est ergo circa primum considerandum, quod antiquitus erat valde magnum quod Angeli apparerent hominibus; vel quod homines facerent eis reverentiam, habebant pro maxima laude. Unde et ad laudem Abrahae scribitur, quod recepit Angelos hospitio, et quod exhibuit eis reverentiam. Quod autem Angelus faceret homini reverentiam, nunquam fuit auditum, nisi postquam salutavit beatam virginem, reverenter dicens, ave. We must now consider concerning the first part of this prayer that in ancient times it was no small event when Angels appeared to men; and that man should show them reverence was especially praiseworthy. Thus, it is written to the praise of Abraham that he received the Angels with all courtesy and showed them reverence. But that an Angel should show reverence to a man was never heard of until the Angel reverently greeted the Blessed Virgin saying: “Hail.”
Quod autem antiquitus non reverebatur hominem Angelus, sed homo Angelum, ratio est, quia Angelus erat maior homine; et hoc quantum ad tria. Primo quantum ad dignitatem: ratio est, Angelus est naturae spiritualis. Psal. CIII, 4: qui facit Angelos suos spiritus; homo vero est naturae corruptibilis: unde dicebat Abraham (Gen. XVIII, 27): loquar ad dominum meum, cum sim pulvis et cinis. Non ergo erat decens ut spiritualis et incorruptibilis creatura reverentiam exhiberet corruptibili, scilicet homini. Secundo quantum ad familiaritatem ad Deum. Nam Angelus est Deo familiaris, utpote assistens. Dan. VII, 10: millia millium ministrabant ei, et decies millies centena millia assistebant ei. Homo vero est quasi extraneus, et elongatus a Deo per peccatum. Psal. LIV, 8: elongavi fugiens. Ideo conveniens est ut homo revereatur Angelum, utpote propinquum et familiarem regis. In olden time an Angel would not show reverence to a man, but a man would deeply revere an Angel. This is because Angels are greater than men, and indeed in three ways. First, they are greater than men in dignity. This is because the Angel is of a spiritual nature: “You make your angels spirits” [Ps 103:4]. But, on the other hand, man is of a corruptible nature, for Abraham said: “I will speak to my Lord, whereas I am dust and ashes” [Gen 18:27]. It was not fitting, therefore, that a spiritual and incorruptible creature should show reverence to one that is corruptible as is a man. Secondly, an Angel is closer to God. The Angel, indeed, is of the family of God, and as it were stands ever by Him: “Thousands of thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before Him” [Dan 7:10]. Man, on the other hand, is rather a stranger and afar off from God because of sin: “I have gone afar off” [Ps 44:8]. Therefore, it is fitting that man should reverence an Angel who is an intimate and one of the household of the King.
Tertio praeeminebat propter plenitudinem splendoris gratiae divinae: Angeli enim participant ipsum lumen divinum in summa plenitudine. Iob. XXV, 3: nunquid est numerus militum eius, et super quem non surget lumen eius? Et ideo semper apparet cum lumine. Sed homines, etsi aliquid participent de ipso lumine gratiae, parum tamen, et in obscuritate quadam. Non ergo decens erat ut homini reverentiam exhiberet, quousque aliquis inveniretur in humana natura qui in his tribus excederet Angelos. Et haec fuit beata virgo. Et ideo ad designandum quod in his tribus excedebat eum, voluit ei Angelus reverentiam exhibere: unde dixit, ave. Then, thirdly, the Angels far exceed men in the fullness of the splendor of divine grace. For Angels participate in the highest degree in the divine light: “Is there any numbering of His soldiers? And upon whom shall not His light arise?”[Job 25:3]. Hence, the Angels always appear among men clothed in light, hut men on the contrary, although they partake somewhat of the light of grace, nevertheless do so in a much slighter degree and with a certain obscurity. It was, therefore, not fitting that an Angel should show reverence to a man until it should come to pass that one would be found in human nature who exceeded the Angels in these three points in which we have seen that they excel over men—and this was the Blessed Virgin. To show that she excelled the Angels in these, the Angel desired to show her reverence, and so he said: “Ave (Hail).”
Full of grace
Unde beata virgo excessit Angelos in iis tribus. Et primo in plenitudine gratiae, quae magis est in beata virgine quam in aliquo Angelo; et ideo ad insinuandum hoc, Angelus ei reverentiam exhibuit, dicens, gratia plena, quasi diceret: ideo exhibeo tibi reverentiam, quia me excellis in plenitudine gratiae. The Blessed Virgin was superior to any of the Angels in the fullness of grace, and as an indication of this the Angel showed reverence to her by saying: “Full of grace.” This is as if he said: “I show you reverence because you dost excel me in the fullness of grace.”
Dicitur autem beata virgo plena gratia quantum ad tria. Primo quantum ad animam, in qua habuit omnem plenitudinem gratiae. Nam gratia Dei datur ad duo: scilicet ad bonum operandum, et ad vitandum malum; et quantum ad ista duo perfectissimam gratiam habuit beata virgo. Nam ipsa omne peccatum vitavit magis quam aliquis sanctus post Christum. Peccatum enim aut est originale, et de isto fuit mundata in utero; aut mortale aut veniale, et de istis libera fuit. Unde Cant. IV, 7: tota pulchra es, amica mea, et macula non est in te. Augustinus in libro de natura et gratia: excepta sancta virgine Maria, si omnes sancti et sanctae cum hic viverent, interrogati fuissent utrum sine peccato essent, omnes una voce clamassent: si dixerimus quia peccatum non habemus, ipsi nos seducimus, et veritas in nobis non est. Excepta, inquam, hac sancta virgine, de qua propter honorem domini, cum de peccato agitur, nullam prorsus volo quaestionem habere. Scimus enim quod ei plus gratiae collatum fuerit ad peccatum ex omni parte vincendum quae illum concipere et parere meruit quem constat nullum habuisse peccatum. The Blessed Virgin is said to be full of grace in three ways. First, as regards her soul she was full of grace. The grace of God is given for two chief purposes, namely, to do good and to avoid evil. The Blessed Virgin, then, received grace in the most perfect degree, because she had avoided every sin more than any other Saint after Christ. [For sin is either original, and from this she was cleansed in the womb, or mortal or venial, and from these she was free.] Thus it is said: “You are fair, My beloved, and there is not a spot in you” [Sg 4:7]. St. Augustine says: “If we could bring together all the Saints and ask them if they were entirely without sin, all of them, with the exception of the Blessed Virgin, would say with one voice: ‘If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.’[1 Jn 1:8]. I except, however, this holy Virgin of whom, because of the honor of God, I wish to omit all mention of sin” [ De natura et gratia 36]. For we know that to her was granted grace to overcome every kind of sin by Him whom she merited to conceive and bring forth, and He certainly was wholly without sin.
Sed Christus excellit beatam virginem in hoc quod sine originali conceptus et natus est. Beata autem virgo in originali est concepta, sed non nata. Ipsa etiam omnium virtutum opera exercuit, alii autem sancti specialia quaedam: quia alius humilis, alius castus, alius misericors; et ideo ipsi dantur in exemplum specialium virtutum, sicut beatus Nicolaus in exemplum misericordiae et cetera. Christ excelled the Blessed Virgin in this, that He was conceived and born without original sin, while the Blessed Virgin was conceived in original sin, but was not born in it. [as in Summa, but otherwise in I Sent., c. 44, q. 1, ad. 3]. She exercised the works of all the virtues, whereas the Saints are conspicuous for the exercise of certain special virtues. Thus, one excelled in humility, another in chastity, another in mercy, to the extent that they are the special exemplars of these virtues—as, for example, St. Nicholas is an exemplar of the virtue of mercy.
Sed beata virgo in exemplum omnium virtutum: quia in ea reperis exemplum humilitatis: Luc. I, 38: ecce ancilla domini, et post, vers. 48: respexit humilitatem ancillae suae, castitatis, quoniam virum non cognosco, vers. 34, et omnium virtutum; ut satis patet. Sic ergo plena est gratia beata virgo et quantum ad boni operationem, et quantum ad mali vitationem. Secundo plena fuit gratia quantum ad redundantiam animae ad carnem vel corpus. Nam magnum est in sanctis habere tantum de gratia quod sanctificet animam; sed anima beatae virginis ita fuit plena quod ex ea refudit gratiam in carnem, ut de ipsa conciperet filium Dei. Et ideo dicit Hugo de s. Victore: quia in corde eius amor spiritus sancti singulariter ardebat, ideo in carne eius mirabilia faciebat, intantum quod de ea nasceretur Deus et homo. Luc. I, 35: quod enim nascetur ex te sanctum, vocabitur filius Dei. The Blessed Virgin is the exemplar of all the virtues. In her is the fullness of the virtue of humility: “Behold the handmaid of the Lord” [Lk 1:38]. And again: “He has looked on the humility of his handmaid” [Lk 1:48]. So she is also exemplar of the virtue of chastity: “Because I know not man” [Lk 1:34]. And thus it is with all the virtues, as is evident. Mary was full of grace not only in the performance of all good, but also in the avoidance of all evil. Again, the Blessed Virgin was full of grace in the overflowing effect of this grace upon her flesh or body. For while it is a great thing in the Saints that the abundance of grace sanctified their souls, yet, moreover, the soul of the holy Virgin was so filled with grace that from her soul grace poured into her flesh from which was conceived the Son of God. Hugh of St. Victor says of this: “Because the love of the Holy Spirit so inflamed her soul, He worked a wonder in her flesh, in that from it was born God made Man.” “And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God” [Lk 1:35].
Tertio quantum ad refusionem in omnes homines. Magnum enim est in quolibet sancto, quando habet tantum de gratia quod sufficit ad salutem multorum; sed quando haberet tantum quod sufficeret ad salutem omnium hominum de mundo, hoc esset maximum: et hoc est in Christo, et in beata virgine. Nam in omni periculo potes salutem obtinere ab ipsa virgine gloriosa. Unde Cant. IV, 4: mille clypei, (idest remedia contra pericula), pendent ex ea. Item in omni opere virtutis potes eam habere in adiutorium; et ideo dicit ipsa, Eccli. XXIV, 25: in me omnis spes vitae et virtutis. Sic ergo plena est gratia, et excedit Angelos in plenitudine gratiae; et propter hoc convenienter vocatur Maria quae interpretatur illuminata in se; unde Isai. LVIII, 11: implebit splendoribus animam tuam; et illuminatrix in alios, quantum ad totum mundum; et ideo assimilatur soli et lunae. The plenitude of grace in Mary was such that its effects overflow upon all men. It is a great thing in a Saint when he has grace to bring about the salvation of many, but it is exceedingly wonderful when grace is of such abundance as to be sufficient for the salvation of all men in the world, and this is true of Christ and of the Blessed Virgin. Thus, “a thousand bucklers,” that is, remedies against dangers, “hang therefrom” [Sg 4:4]. Likewise, in every work of virtue one can have her as one’s helper. Of her it was spoken: “In me is all grace of the way and of the truth, in me is all hope of life and of virtue” [Sir 24:25]. Therefore, Mary is full of grace, exceeding the Angels in this fullness and very fittingly is she called “Mary” which means “in herself enlightened”: “The Lord will fill your soul with brightness” [Is 48:11]. And she will illumine others throughout the world for which reason she is compared to the sun and to the moon.
The Lord is with you
Secundo excellit Angelos in familiaritate divina. Et ideo hoc designans Angelus dixit: dominus tecum; quasi dicat: ideo exhibeo tibi reverentiam, quia tu familiarior es Deo quam ego, nam dominus est tecum. Dominus, inquit, pater cum eodem filio; quod nullus Angelus, nec aliqua creatura habuit. Luc. I, XXXV: quod enim nascetur ex te sanctum, vocabitur filius Dei. Dominus filius in utero. Isai. XII, 6: exulta et lauda habitatio Sion, quia magnus in medio tui sanctus Israel. The Blessed Virgin excels the Angels in her closeness to God. The Angel Gabriel indicated this when he said: “The Lord is with you”—as if to say: “I reverence you because you art nearer to God than I, because the Lord is with you.” By the Lord; he means the Father with the Son and the Holy Spirit, who in like manner are not with any Angel or any other spirit: “The Holy which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God” [Lk 1:35]. God the Son was in her womb: “Rejoice and praise, O you habitation of Sion; for great is He that is in the midst of you, the Holy One of Israel” [Is 12:6].
Aliter est ergo dominus cum beata virgine quam cum Angelo; quia cum ea ut filius, cum Angelo ut dominus. Dominus spiritus sanctus, sicut in templo; unde dicitur: templum domini, sacrarium spiritus sancti, quia concepit ex spiritu sancto: Luc. I, 35: spiritus sanctus superveniet in te. Sic ergo familiarior cum Deo est beata virgo quam Angelus: quia cum ipsa dominus pater, dominus filius, dominus spiritus sanctus, scilicet tota Trinitas. Et ideo cantatur de ea: totius Trinitatis nobile triclinium. Hoc autem verbum, dominus tecum, est nobilius verbum quod sibi dici possit. Merito ergo Angelus reveretur beatam virginem, quia mater domini, et ideo domina est. Unde convenit ei hoc nomen Maria, quod Syra lingua interpretatur domina. The Lord is not with the Angel in the same manner as with the Blessed Virgin; for with her He is as a Son, and with the Angel He is the Lord. The Lord, the Holy Ghost, is in her as in a temple, so that it is said: “The temple of the Lord, the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit,” [Benedictus antiphon from the Little Office of Blessed Virgin], because she conceived by the Holy Ghost. “The Holy Ghost shall come upon you” [Lk 1:35]. The Blessed Virgin is closer to God than is an Angel, because with her are the Lord the Father, the Lord the Son, and the Lord the Holy Ghost—in a word, the Holy Trinity. Indeed of her we sing: “Noble resting place of the Triune God.” “The Lord is with you” are the most praise-laden words that the Angel could have uttered; and, hence, he so profoundly reverenced the Blessed Virgin because she is the Mother of the Lord and Our Lady. Accordingly she is very well named “Mary,” which in the Syrian tongue means “Lady.”
Tertio excedit Angelos quantum ad puritatem: quia beata virgo non solum erat pura in se, sed etiam procuravit puritatem aliis. Ipsa enim purissima fuit et quantum ad culpam, quia ipsa virgo nec mortale nec veniale peccatum incurrit. Item quantum ad poenam. Tres enim maledictiones datae sunt hominibus propter peccatum. The Blessed Virgin exceeds the Angels in purity. She is not only pure, but she obtains purity for others. She is purity itself, wholly lacking in every guilt of sin, for she never incurred either mortal or venial sin. So, too, she was free from the penalties of sin. Sinful man, on the contrary, incurs a threefold curse on account of sin.
Prima data est mulieri, scilicet quod cum corruptione conciperet, cum gravamine portaret, et in dolore pareret. Sed ab hac immunis fuit beata virgo: quia sine corruptione concepit, in solatio portavit, et in gaudio peperit salvatorem. Isai. XXXV, 2: germinans germinabit exultabunda et laudans. The first fell upon woman who conceives in corruption, bears her child with difficulty, and brings it forth in pain. The Blessed Virgin was wholly free from this, since she conceived without corruption, bore her Child in comfort, and brought Him forth in joy: “It shall bud forth and blossom, and shall rejoice with joy and praise” [Is 35:2].
Secunda data est homini, scilicet quod in sudore vultus vesceretur pane suo. Ab hac immunis fuit beata virgo: quia, ut dicit apostolus, I Cor. VII, virgines solutae sunt a cura huius mundi, et soli Deo vacant. The second penalty was inflicted upon man in that he shall earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. The Blessed Virgin was also immune from this because, as the Apostle says, virgins are free from the cares of this world and are occupied wholly with the things of the Lord [1 Cor 7:34].
Tertia fuit communis viris et mulieribus, scilicet ut in pulverem reverterentur. Et ab hac immunis fuit beata virgo, quia cum corpore assumpta est in caelum. Credimus enim quod post mortem resuscitata fuerit, et portata in caelum. Psal. CXXXI, 8: surge, domine, in requiem tuam; tu, et arca sanctificationis tuae. The third curse is common both to man and woman in that both shall one day return to dust. The Blessed Virgin was spared this penalty, for her body was raised up into heaven, and so we believe that after her death she was revived and transported into heaven: “Arise, O Lord, into your resting place, You and the ark which You hast sanctified” [Ps 131:8].

Articulus 2

Benedicta tu in mulieribus
Article 2

“Blessed are you among women”
Sic ergo immunis fuit ab omni maledictione, et ideo benedicta in mulieribus: quia ipsa sola maledictionem sustulit, et benedictionem portavit, et ianuam Paradisi aperuit; et ideo convenit ei nomen Maria, quae interpretatur stella maris; quia sicut per stellam maris navigantes diriguntur ad portum, ita Christiani diriguntur per Mariam ad gloriam. Because the Blessed Virgin was immune from these punishments, she is “blessed among women.” Moreover, she alone escaped the curse of sin, brought forth the Source of blessing, and opened the gate of heaven. It is surely fitting that her name is “Mary,” which is akin to the Star of the Sea (“Maria—maris stella”), for just as sailors are directed to port by the star of the sea, so also Christians are by Mary guided to glory.

Articulus 3

Benedictus fructus ventris tui
Article 3

“Blessed is the fruit of your womb”
Peccator aliquando quaerit in aliquo quod non potest consequi, sed consequitur illud iustus. Prov. XIII, 22: custoditur iusto substantia peccatoris. Sic Eva quaesivit fructum, et in illo non invenit omnia quae desideravit; beata autem virgo in fructu suo invenit omnia quae desideravit Eva. Nam Eva in fructu suo tria desideravit. Primo id quod falso promisit ei Diabolus, scilicet quod essent sicut dii, scientes bonum et malum. Eritis (inquit ille mendax) sicut dii, sicut dicitur Gen. III, 5. Et mentitus est, quia mendax est, et pater eius. Nam Eva propter esum fructus non est facta similis Deo, sed dissimilis: quia peccando recessit a Deo salutari suo, unde et expulsa est de Paradiso. Sed hoc invenit beata virgo et omnes Christiani in fructu ventris sui: quia per Christum coniungimur et assimilamur Deo. I Ioan. III, 2: cum apparuerit, similes ei erimus, quoniam videbimus eum sicuti est. The sinner often seeks for something which he does not find; but to the just man it is given to find what he seeks: “The substance of the sinner is kept for the just” [Prov 13:22]. Thus, Eve sought the fruit of the tree (of good and evil), but she did not find in it that which she sought. Everything Eve desired, however, was given to the Blessed Virgin. Eve sought that which the devil falsely promised her, namely, that she and Adam would be as gods, knowing good and evil. “You shall be,” says this liar, “as gods” [Gen 3:5]. But he lied, because “he is a liar and the father of lies” [Jn 8:44]. Eve was not made like God after having eaten of the fruit, but rather she was unlike God in that by her sin she withdrew from God and was driven out of paradise. The Blessed Virgin, however, and all Christians found in the Fruit of her womb Him whereby we are all united to God and are made like to Him: “When He shall appear, we shall be like to Him, because we shall see Him as He is” [1 Jn 3:2].
Secundo in fructu suo Eva desideravit delectationem, quia bonus ad edendum; sed non invenit, quia statim cognovit se nudam, et habuit dolorem. Sed in fructu virginis suavitatem invenimus et salutem. Ioan. VI, 55: qui manducat meam carnem, habet vitam aeternam. Eve looked for pleasure in the fruit of the tree because it was good to eat. But she did not find this pleasure in it, and, on the contrary, she at once discovered she was naked and was stricken with sorrow. In the Fruit of the Blessed Virgin we find sweetness and salvation: “He who eats My flesh... has eternal life” [Jn 6:55].
Tertio fructus Evae erat pulcher aspectu; sed pulchrior fructus virginis, in quem desiderant Angeli prospicere. Psal. XLIV, 3: speciosus forma prae filiis hominum: et hoc est, quia est splendor paternae gloriae. Non ergo potuit invenire Eva in fructu suo quod nec quilibet peccator in peccatis. Et ideo quae desideramus, quaeramus in fructu virginis. Est autem hic fructus benedictus a Deo, quia sic replevit eum omni gratia quod pervenit ad nos exhibendo ei reverentiam: Ephes. I, 3: benedictus Deus et pater domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spirituali in Christo: ab Angelis: Apoc. VII, 12: benedictio et claritas et sapientia et gratiarum actio, honor et virtus et fortitudo Deo nostro; ab hominibus: apostolus, Phil. II, 11: omnis lingua confiteatur, quia dominus Iesus Christus in gloria est Dei patris. Psal. CXVII, 26: benedictus qui venit in nomine domini. Sic ergo est virgo benedicta; sed et magis benedictus fructus eius. The fruit which Eve desired was beautiful to look upon, but that Fruit of the Blessed Virgin is far more beautiful, for the Angels desire to look upon Him: “You are beautiful above the sons of men” [Ps 44:3]. He is the splendor of the glory of the Father. Eve, therefore, looked in vain for that which she sought in the fruit of the tree, just as the sinner is disappointed in his sins. We must seek in the Fruit of the womb of the Virgin Mary whatsoever we desire. This is He who is the Fruit blessed by God, who has filled Him with every grace, which in turn is poured out upon us who adore Him: “Blessed be God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with spiritual blessings in Christ” [Eph 1:3]. He, too, is revered by the Angels: “Benediction and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving, honor and power and strength, to our God” [Rev 7:12]. And He is glorified by men: “Every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father” [Phil 2:11]. The Blessed Virgin is indeed blessed, but far more blessed is the Fruit of her womb: “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord” [Ps 117:26].