He who labors as he prays lifts his heart to God with his hands. --St. Benedict of Nursia
QuoteShortly after the Second Lateran Council (1139), the chronicle of the French abbey of Morigny recorded a vivid account of the assembly.¹ When Pope Innocent II rose to address the fathers, he bemoaned the evil effects of schism and the problems created in the Church if the head itself was corrupt. Innocent made the point that 'the height of ecclesiastical honour is received by the permission of the Roman pontiff, as if by the custom of feudal law, and without his permission it is not legally held'.² He further and rather ominously declared that canon law ought to be taken up as a weapon in time of ecclesiastical war. Then, after demonstrating that Anacletus had taken the papacy by usurpation, Innocent announced: 'Because the decrees of an irregularly appointed person are irregular, whatever he had established we destroy, whomever he had exalted we degrade, and however many he had consecrated we unordain and depose'.³ In a dramatic ceremony, the pope called the creatures of the antipope forward by name and upbraided them 'with indignation and reproach'. Next he 'violently seized the pastoral staves from their hands, and shamefully pulled off the pontifical pallia, on which the highest dignity is based, from their shoulders, and also removed those rings by which betrothal to the church belonging to them is expressed, without regard for mercy'.
- La chronique de Morigny (1095-1152), ed. L. Mirot, 2nd edn (Paris, 1912), 71-75.
- '[A] Romani pontificis licencia ecclesiastici honoris celsitudo quasi feodalis juris consuetudine susci- pitur, et sine ejus permissione legaliter non tenetur', Chronique de Morigny, 72.
- '[Q]uia inordinate persone inordinata sunt decreta, quodcumque ille statuerat destruimus, quoscumque exaltaverat degradamus, et quotquot consecraverat exordinamus et deponimus', Chronique de Morigny, 74.
- 'His dictis, singulos quos reos cognoverat, propriis nominibus exprimens, eisque cum indignacione et jurgio exprobrans, pastorales baculos de manibus violenter arripuit, et pontificalia pallia, in quibus summa dignitas consistit, de humeris verecondose abstraxit, ipsos quoque anulos, in quibus ad ipsos pertinens ecclesie desponsacio exprimitur, sine respectu misericordie abstulit', Chronique de Morigny, 74.
QuoteNo one may be disturbed for his opinions, even religious ones, provided that their manifestation does not trouble the public order established by the law.There are people (e.g., Muslims) who believe killing infidels is a virtue. Why should such a Muslim not "be disturbed for his opinions," even though the "manifestation" of his beliefs does indeed "trouble the public order established by the law"?
QuoteThe free communication of [true and false!*] thoughts and opinions is one of the most precious rights of man: any citizen thus may speak, write, print freely, except to respond to the abuse of this liberty,** in the cases determined by the law.*Why should one have the freedom to spread falsehoods and lies?
QuoteCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, ...There are some good parts of these documents (like real natural rights), but religious indifferentism (which says beliefs, esp. religious ones, don't matter) and freedom of press (which gives way to a dictatorship of the media, Hollywood, textbook publishers, et al., who know beliefs do matter and yet inculcate falsehoods) have been condemned (e.g., in Mirari Vosi §13 and §15, respectively).
Quote from: St. Robert BellarmineSome [who argue martyrdom alone cannot justify] respond that the Innocents were circumcised, hence justified before martyrdom. But this is not so. For it is uncertain whether they were all circumcised; nay, it is very probable and almost certain not all were circumcised. For Herod killed all the children who were in Bethlehem and its environs; he did not command only the children of Jews but utterly all be killed: and perhaps not a few Gentiles were among them. Moreover, he ordered that all infants two years and younger be killed, hence even those who were not yet 8 days old, who alone can be circumcised. Still, it is not de fide that circumcision justifies, and yet the Church certainly believes that absolutely all those infants are saved. Further, the Church not only believes the Innocents are saved but even honors them as martyrs; therefore, suffering for Christ conveys something to them ex opere operato. Nor is Scotus's argument that this is a privilege of children count: for it is asserted without any grounds. For if martyrdom profits infants ex opere operato, why not adults? Certainly the martyrdom of adults is no less powerful and efficacious than of infants; rather, it is more powerful, more noble, and more efficacious.
Quote from: Vatican II Preparatory Commission document «De castitate et al.»21. Mixed Marriages Where a marriage between two Catholics can be contracted without extraordinary difficulties, the good of religion for the most part requires that Catholic men and women avoid so-called mixed marriages, especially with unbelievers. But the faithful also have the duty, in accordance with the dictates of prudence and the other virtues, to avoid marriage with those who are opposed to God or religion or with those who are Catholics in name but not in life. Although the Church, using her power, may permit mixed marriages, nevertheless the Catholic party, as divine law dictates, must in the conceded mixed marriage avoid dangers to the faith and indifferentism, must always carefully see to the Catholic education of the children, and lovingly and prudently try to bring the spouse to the Catholic truth. Pastors should take special care for those who are joined in a mixed marriage. The Sacred Synod knows that in some places mixed marriages cannot be avoided, but from the fact that this can happen in some places false principles or dangerous inducements should not be deduced.
... It also rebukes those who say, and indeed under the pretext of benefitting the Church, that mixed marriages are generally and in themselves to be fostered rather than tolerated. That position is also mistaken which maintains that a marriage can be declared invalid or dissolved solely because of a failure of love. ...
Quote from: fn 34Pius VII, Brief Etsi fraternitatis, October 8, 1803 (CIC Fontes, II, p. 718):Vatican II threw this teaching out due to Vatican II's promotion of the heresy of ecumenism.Quote from: Pius VII, Brief, «Etsi fraternitatis», October 8, 1803And the first of these is that the Catholic Church has always forbidden and rejected as illicit, pernicious and detestable the marriages of Catholics with heretics, as we could demonstrate from innumerable decrees of Councils and of Supreme Pontiffs.... And although in some areas because of difficulties of time and place, such marriages may be tolerated, this should be considered to be an equanimity which in no way implies approval or consent but mere patience, necessary but not voluntary, in order to avoid greater evils...;collate this with many other documents, especially those listed in the note to D 1499 and in the note to CIC c. 1060. With regard to canons 10 and 31 of the Council of Laodicea (Mansi II, 565 and 570), it should be noted that they are to be interpreted in the light of the whole teaching of the Council, which did not even permit the faithful to pray with heretics and schismatics.
Quote from: Canon 1060Most severely does the Church prohibit everywhere that marriage be entered into by two baptized persons, one of whom is Catholic, and the other belonging to a heretical or schismatic sect; indeed, if there is a danger of perversion to the Catholic spouse and children, that marriage is forbidden even by divine law.The 1983 Code on mixed marriages is much, much more lenient.
QuoteMartyrium dicitur baptismus sanguinis Marc. 10. In adultis est actus fortitudinis, et caritatis : quoad infantes, sufficit occisos fuisse ex odio in Christum, ut martyrium suppleat vices baptismi aquæ, deleatque ex opere operato peccatum originale quoad culpam, et poenam, ut docet S. Thomas (2, 2, qu. 124, art. 1 ad 1)However, he denies it:
QuoteImmo id ipsum extendunt ad infantes in uteris maternis occisos.because someone never born once cannot be reborn in Christ (Jn. 3:3).
QuoteSi enim propter Christum infans in utero occideretur, martyr esset, non minus quam Innocentes.The context is that "parvulos in maternis uteris periclitantes posse salvari" ("children in peril in the mother's womb can be saved"):
QuotePosse autem salvari dico per sacramentum baptismi, non in re, sed in voto parentum susceptum, cum aliqua benedictione prolis seu oblatione ipsius ad Deum, cum invocatione Trinitatis.(1917 Code of Canon law cans. 746-748 is along the same spirit.)
[I say the child can be saved by the sacrament of baptism, not in re, but received in voto of the parents, with some blessing of the child or offering him to God, invoking the Trinity.]
|Introitus. Lætare filia Ierusalem et exulta: lætare in die desponsationis tuæ: et in die lætitiæ cordis tui. ps. Quam pulchri sunt gressus tui filia principis? quam pulchra es: et quam decora carissima in deliciis? ℣. Gloria Patri, et Filio.|
|Oratio. Deus, qui beatissimam filii tui genitricem Mariam: ut virginalis partus eius, viri honestaretur consortio: Ioseph iusto desponsari voluisti: da nobis quæsemus: et tanti coniugii mysterium digne celebrare in terris: et de Christi et Ecclesiæ unione: in matrimonii fœdere figurata: perpetuo gaudere in cælis. Per eundem Christum.|
|Lectio Esaiæ prophete. [lxii. 1-6.]|
|Graduale Missus est Gabriel angelus a Deo in civitatem Galilaee: cui nomen Nazareth: ad virginem desponsatam viro: cui nomen era Ioseph: de domo David. ℣. Et nomen virginis Maria: et ingressus Angelus ad eam, dixit: Ave gratia plena: Dominus tecum. Alleluia, alleluia. ℣. Tota pulchra es amica nostra: et macula non est in te: Veni de Libano sponsa: veni de Libano: veni, coronaberis: alleluia.|
|Tractus. Gaude Maria virgo: sponsa Dei altissimi. ℣. Quæ pro tutamine partus tui sanctissimi. ℣. Iuncta connubio Ioseph: viri iustissimi. ℣. Fuisti exemplum thalami purissimi. ℣. Dei genitrix intercede pro nobis.|
|Sequentia sancti evangelii secundum Mattheum. ca. 2. [i. 18-22.]|
|Offertorium. Exurgens autem Ioseph a somno: fecit sicut præceperat ei angelus: et accepit Mariam coniugem suam.|
|Secreta. Sacrificii huius oblationem et hostiam tibi quæsemus omnipotens Deus: beatæ Mariæ virginis, filii tui Domini nostri Iesu Christi genitricis, precatio sancta conciliet: ut sacrum munus, quod altari tuo sancto, pro salute nostra offerri præcepisti: tam pie matris favore intercedente: tue sit placitum maiestati. Per eundem Dominum nostrum Iesum christum filium tuum.|
|Communio. Hortus conclusus sponsa et semper virgo Maria: hortus conclusus: fons signatus: fons: hortorum: puteus aquarum viventium: quæ fluunt impetu de Libano.|
|Postcommunio. Multiplicata Domine Iesu Christe misericordiam tuam super nos: et sacrosanctum hæc sacrificium: ad laudem, et honorem beatissimæ genetricis tuæ: suppliciter tibi oblatum: benigno favore prosequere, ut per idipsum animas nostras in regno cælestis perpetuum in holocaustum tibi offerre, et sacrificare valeamus. Qui vivis et regnas.|
QuoteCantántibus organis, Cæcília virgo in corde suo soli Dómino decantábat, dicens: Fiat, Dómine, cor meum et corpus meum immaculátum, ut non confúndar.Also from matins today, lectio 4:
QuoteCæcília, Virgo Romana, nobili genere nata, a prima ætate christianæ fidei præceptis instituta, virginitátem suam Deo vovit. Sed, cum póstea, contra suam voluntátem, data esset in matrimónium Valeriáno, prima nuptiárum nocte hunc cum eo sermónem hábuit: Ego, Valeriane, in Angeli tutela sum, qui virginitátem meam custódit; quare ne quid in me committas, quo ira Dei in te concitétur. Quibus verbis commótus Valerianus, illam attingere non est ausus; quin étiam addidit se in Christum crediturum, si eum Angelum vidéret. Cui Cæcília cum sine baptismo negaret id fíeri posse, incénsus cupiditate vidéndi Angelum, se baptizari velle respóndit. Quare hortatu Vírginis ad Urbanum Papam, qui propter persecutiónem in Mártyrum sepúlcris via Appia latebat, veniens, ab eo baptizátur.
QuoteThe Breviary Office of Christ the King
The hymn Te saeculorum Principem of First Vespers has had the following verses omitted:
The wicked mob screams out.
"We don't want Christ as king,"
While we, with shouts of joy, hail
Thee as the world's supreme King.
May the rulers of the world publicly
honour and extol Thee;
May teachers and judges reverence Thee;
May the laws express Thine order
And the arts reflect Thy beauty.
May kings find renown in their submission
and dedication to Thee.
Bring under Thy gentle rule our
country and our homes.
Glory be to Thee, Jesus, supreme over
All secular authorities;
And glory be to the Father and
The loving Spirit through endless ages.
The hymn Aeterna Imago Altissimi has been transferred from Matins to Lauds, and the following changes made. The last two lines of the second verse stated that the Father had entrusted to Christ, as His right, "absolute dominion over the peoples" (Cui iure sceptrum gentium Pater supremum credidit). This has been replaced by an admonition that we, as individuals, should willingly submit ourselves to Christ (tibi volentes subdimur qui iure cunctis imperas).
The following verses have, not surprisingly, been omitted completely:
To Thee, Who by right claim rule over all men,
We willingly submit ourselves;
To be subject to Thy laws
Means happiness for a state and its peoples.
Glory be to Thee, Jesus,
Supreme over all secular authorities;
And glory be to the Father and
The loving Spirit through endless ages.
A version of the Vexilla Regis has been abolished completely. Originally found in Lauds, some of its verses read:
Christ triumphantly unfurls His
Glorious banners everywhere;
Come nations of the world, and
On bended knee acclaim the King of kings.
How great is the happiness of a country
That rightly owns the rule of Christ and
Zealously carries out the commands God gave to men.
The plighted word keeps marriage unbroken,
The children grow up with virtue intact and
Homes where purity is found
Abound also in the other virtues of home life.
Beloved King, may the light from Thee
That we desire, shine on us in all its glory;
May the world receive the gift of peace,
Be subject to Thee and adore Thee.
A number of readings from Quas primas itself were included in the Office, and they explained the traditional teaching on Church and State with great clarity. They have all been removed, showing how blatantly the compilers of the new Breviary went about their task of eliminating liturgical references to the Social Kingship of Our Lord Jesus Christ. The removal of these readings from Quas primas must certainly be seen as an affront to the memory and the teaching of Pope Pius XI, at whose behest the Office had been composed only forty years earlier, with the specific aim of reminding rulers that they are bound to give public honour and obedience to Our Lord. Could this great Pope possibly have imagined that within four decades he would have a successor who would totally mutilate the Office that he had approved so recently, and that this mutilation would have the objective of removing any suggestion that rulers are bound to give honour and obedience to Our Lord? Pope Paul VI stated explicitly to the rulers of the world that the Church asked no more of them than freedom to pursue its mission.
The thoroughness with which Archbishop Bugnini's Consilium expunged every specific expression of Our Lord's Social Kingship from the liturgy can hardly be denied. Its members did not even miss a reference to Our Lord's Social Kingship in the Good Friday liturgy. The first of the Solemn Collects, the one for the Church, read:QuoteLet us pray, dearly beloved, for the holy Church of God: that our God and Lord may be pleased to give it peace, keep its unity and preserve it throughout the world: subjecting to it principalities and powers, and may He grant us, while we live in peace and tranquillity, grace to glorify God the Father almighty.
This prayer has been replaced by the following:QuoteLet us pray, dear friends, for the holy Church of God throughout the World,
that God, the almighty Father guide it, and gather it together
so that we may worship him in peace and tranquillity.
Lest anyone should imagine that an undue significance has been placed upon changes in the Breviary and Missal relating to the doctrine of Christ the King, a comment by Archbishop A. Bugnini, Great Architect of the Liturgical Revolution, should prove very illuminating.