August 19, 2018, 04:50:36 PM


To love God is something greater than to know Him. --St. Thomas Aquinas

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Dogma & Doctrine / Re: Table of Marriage Validity...
Last post by Geremia - June 20, 2018, 03:04:47 PM
Quote from: Kephapaulos on June 07, 2018, 11:40:17 AM2)Since virginity is more meritorious than married state ..., does that mean a married person can never reach the same highest potential level of merit in heaven itself as the highest potential level of merit in heaven for a celibate person or consecrated virgin?
No, they can. See Summa Theologica II-II q. 152 a. 4 ad 2:
QuoteThough virginity is better than conjugal continence, a married person may be better than a virgin for two reasons. First, on the part of chastity itself; if to wit, the married person is more prepared in mind to observe virginity, if it should be expedient, than the one who is actually a virgin. Hence Augustine (De Bono Conjug. xxii) charges the virgin to say: "I am no better than Abraham, although the chastity of celibacy is better than the chastity of marriage." Further on he gives the reason for this: "For what I do now, he would have done better, if it were fitting for him to do it then; and what they did I would even do now if it behooved me now to do it." Secondly, because perhaps the person who is not a virgin has some more excellent virtue. Wherefore Augustine says (De Virgin. xliv): "Whence does a virgin know the things that belong to the Lord, however solicitous she be about them, if perchance on account of some mental fault she be not yet ripe for martyrdom, whereas this woman to whom she delighted in preferring herself is already able to drink the chalice of the Lord?"
Our perfection consists chiefly in our degree of charity (cf. Theology of Christian Perfection by Royo Marín, O.P.). Marriage is a means toward this end, and continence/virginity/celibacy is a better, safer, more effective means toward this end.

Quote from: Kephapaulos on June 07, 2018, 11:40:17 AM(or the sacrament of Matrimony as such too?)
See St. Robert in De Matrimonio p. 788:
Quotealiud est comparare statum cum statu, aliud, statum cum sacramento. Status continentiæ altior est statu Matrimonii et majoris gratiæ et meriti: Qui enim nubit, bene facit: qui non nubit, melius facit, 1. Corinth. 7. Sacramentum tamen semper auget gratiam, in quocumque statu suscipiatur. Quare continens dum Matrimonium contrahit, in gratia crescit sed si idem continens propter Deum nuptias humanas contempsisset, plus gratiæ apud Deum invenisset

it is one thing to compare a state with a state, another to compare a state with a sacrament. The state of continence is higher than the state of Matrimony and of greater grace and merit: For he who marries [i.e., "giveth his virgin in marriage"] does well: he who does not marry [i.e., "giveth her not" "in marriage"] does better, 1 Corinth. 7[:38]. But a sacrament always increases grace, in whatever state it is received. Wherefore when a continent person contracts Marriage, he grows in grace, but if this same continent person had contemned human marriage for God's sake, he would have found more grace with God
Dogma & Doctrine / Re: Table of Marriage Validity...
Last post by Kephapaulos - June 07, 2018, 11:40:17 AM
1)Is civil marriage valid between Catholics in only exceptional circumstances? Like political ones? Where authorized by the Catholic Church? 

2)Since virginity is more meritorious than married state (or the sacrament of Matrimony as such too?), does that mean a married person can never reach the same highest potential level of merit in heaven itself as the highest potential level of merit in heaven for a celibate person or consecrated virgin?

3)When the Scriptures speak of a man leaving father and mother to cling to his wife, does the same principle apply vice versa for women marrying?

4) Although Fr. Heribert Jone, OFM says in his Moral Theology that the wife should live wherever the husband has his job, how is it to be understood where often wives prefer to live close to their own side of the family?

5) What is a good reponse to the claim that many married couples in recent decades have had possibly invalid marriages supposedly due to immaturity, having the mentalities of seven- or eight-year olds, or not knowing what they were doing? (That is the psychological claim I see now.)
Anti-Modernism / Bachar/Guimarães's & Shore's t...
Last post by Geremia - June 02, 2018, 05:40:18 PM
Here's Bachar/Guimarães's translation:
QuoteVirginity is good, I acknowledge this. And, furthermore, it is better than matrimony; I also acknowledge this. And if you like, I will add even more to this: Just as the heavens are to the earth, so are the angels to men. And it is necessary to add something further.

After all, the angels, since they do not take wives nor husbands, they are not made up of flesh and blood nor do they live on earth; they do not feel the stimuli of sensuality, they do not need to eat nor drink, they do not experience the attractiveness of sensual music nor the charm of beautiful bodies, nor other similar things. But just as the sky free from clouds shines magnificently at midday, so also the angelic nature, free from all concupiscence, necessarily remains lucid and radiant.

But the human lineage, although inferior to those spirits by nature, puts its own energies into play and strives with effort, as much as it can, to emulate them [the angels]. In what way? The angels do not marry. Neither does the virgin...

You see how excellent virginity is, and how it makes the dwellers of this earth similar to those citizens of heaven. And with the aid of non-material virtues, it does not permit the defeat of those who are clothed with flesh, making even those who are men emulators of the angels.

To you [heretics], the lot of the evil servants awaits you, while the virgins of the Church have reserved for themselves many and great possessions, which no eye as seen nor ear has heard, and no human understanding has grasped.

compared to Sally Ann Shore's translation (pp. 75-77):
QuoteX. The detractor of marriage does harm to virginity.


3. Is virginity a good? Yes, I fully agree. But is it better than marriage? I agree with this, too. If you wish, I will illustrate the difference like this: virginity is as much superior to marriage as heaven is to earth, as the angels are to men, and, to use far stronger language, it is more superior still.

For the angels, if they do not marry and are not given in marriage, [cf. Matt 22:30 and Luke 20:36] are not a mixture of flesh and blood. They do not pass time on earth and endure trouble from the passions. They require neither food nor drink. Sweet song cannot appease them, nor can a radiant face win them over, nor any other such thing. Their natures of necessity remain transparent and brilliant, with no passion troubling them, like the heavens at high noon clear and undisturbed by any cloud.

XI. Virginity makes angels out of men who sincerely pursue it.

1. But mankind, inferior in its nature to blessed spirits, strains beyond its capacity and, in so far as it can, vies eagerly to equal the angels. How does it do that? Angels neither marry nor are given in marriage; [Matt. 22:30] this is true of the virgin. [...]


2. Do you grasp the value of virginity? that it makes those who spend time on earth live like the angels dwelling in heaven? It does not allow those endowed with bodies to be inferior to the incorporeal powers and spurs all men to rival the angels.

But this applies in no way to you [heretics], who dishonor so great a virtue, who slander the Lord and call him wicked. The punishment of painful slavery will await you; but the virgins of the Church will meet with many magnificent blessings that will surpass the comprehension of the human eye, ear and thought.

Bachar/Guimarães's translation
QuoteOnce this universe was created and disposed as much as possible for our respite and benefit, God shaped man, for whom He had created everything. Once man was formed, he lived in Paradise and while in that place there is no mention of marriage whatsoever. He needed a companion, so woman was given to him. But even so, matrimony still did not seem necessary. It still did not exist and they lived very happily in Paradise as if it were Heaven, without knowing marriage, rejoicing in the familiar treatment with God.

Far from their souls was the ardor of concupiscence, the desire for conception, the pains of birth and any lascivious thought; rather, they lived their lives adorned with virginity as if it were a transparent stream that flowed from a crystalline spring....

However, after that first period, they disobeyed the command of God and were transformed to dust and ashes. They also lost that happy life and the charm of virginity, which left them, abandoning them as God also abandoned them. When they were free from the slavery of the Devil and adored their Lord, they rejoiced in their virginity, which served as a greater adornment than the crowns and gilded robes of kings.

But, after falling captive, stripped of their regal garments and divested of their sacrality, they received as punishment the corruption of death, divine wrath, pain, a life of misery and, together with this, marriage appeared, this vesture of slavery and death. For, as St. Paul says, 'the man who has a woman must concern himself with the things of the world' (1 Cor 7:33) .

compared to Sally Ann Shore's translation (pp. 84-86):
Quote3. When the whole world had been com­pleted and all had been readied for our repose and use, God fashioned man for whom he made the world. After being fashioned, man remained in paradise and there was no reason for marriage. Man did need a helper, and she came into being; not even then did marriage seem necessary. It did not yet appear anywhere but they remained as they were without it. They lived in paradise as in heaven and they enjoyed God's company.

Desire for sexual intercourse, conception, labor, childbirth and every form of corruption had been banished from their souls. As a clear river shooting forth from a pure source, so were they in that place adorned by virginity.


5. [...] Nevertheless, nothing either thwarted or hindered that happy life, which was far better than this. But when they did not obey God and became earth and dust, they destroyed along with that blessed way of life the beauty of virginity, which together with God abandoned them and withdrew.3 As long as they were uncorrupted by the devil and stood in awe of their master, virginity abided with them. It adorned them more than the diadem and golden raiments do kings.

However, when they shed the princely raiment of virginity and laid aside their heavenly attire, they accepted the decay of death, ruin, pain, and a toilsome life. In their wake came marriage: marriage, a garment befitting mortals and slaves.

6. "But the married man is busy with this world's demands." [1 Cor. 7:33]
cf. J. Duchassaing's French translation.

Catholics must adhere to the de fide defined dogma that, as the Council of Trent sess. 24 can. 10 puts it, it is "better and more blessed to remain in virginity, or in celibacy, than to be united in matrimony". If you do not believe this, you adhere to Jovinian's heresy, which, like Protestantism, thinks that all the baptized, regardless of state of life, obtain an equal reward in heaven.

cf. Apoc. 14:4, which shows virgins have a special place in heaven, or Mt. 19:29, where Jesus says virginity yields a hundredfold reward ("every one that hath left...wife, or children...for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall possess life everlasting.")
Anti-Modernism / John Paul II a neo-Jovinian!
Last post by Geremia - May 04, 2018, 10:55:43 AM

This work was originally written and published in Spanish (ICTION, Buenos Aires, 1982). It has been translated into English by J.S. Daly with the permission of Professor Corbi.


Would it be possible for a heresy which was current in the fourth century, had been condemned by the Fathers, by the Magisterium and by the whole of ecclesiastical tradition until the great Pope Pius XII, passing through St. Thomas, Trent and the Syllabus, to rear its head once more after more than fifteen hundred years in 1982?

A heresy which denies a DOGMA already inculcated in the Gospel (Matthew, 19:lOff.), clearly taught by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 7:25 ff.), believed by the whole of Catholic tradition and DEFINED in the Holy Council of Trent: the superiority of the "state of virginity or celibacy" to the "conjugal state" (Denzinger 980).

Chapter II


Jovinian was a heretical priest and monk of the fourth century. St. Ambrose, St. Augustine and, above all, St. Jerome, fought his heresies:

"From Jovinian, a certain monk, comes this heresy which has arisen in our age, while we were still young men. "1

Among others, he maintained these two heresies:

(a) Virginity and matrimony are of equal value and are equally meritorious in the sight of God:

"Virgins, widows and married people, once they have been regenerated in Christ, if they do not differ in their other works, have equal merit".

St. Augustine reports that Jovinian

"attributed to conjugal chastity the same rank as that of virgins consecrated to the Lord".2

Jovinian he says urged nuns to enter matrimony with this argument:

"Are you, virgin, greater than Sara and than Susanna and than Anna?"

And if the Christians exalted virginity above matrimony, Jovinian used to accuse them of Manichaeism:

"Jovinian, who has endeavoured for several years to establish a new heresy, affirmed that the Catholics were supporting the Manichees because, against his opinion, like them, they put holy virginity before matrimony."3

Note that to accuse Catholic morality of Manichaeism is nothing new: it is a myth invented by Jovinian in the fourth century.' Cf. in this regard footnote 32 and the corresponding text.

(b) As the logical consequence for anyone who denies the excellence of virginity, Jovinian ended by denying the perpetual virginity of Mary.

He asserted that if Mary had indeed conceived miraculously through the working of the Holy Ghost, she ceased to be a virgin at the moment of, and as a result of, giving birth.4

About the year 390 Pope St. Siricius - as we shall see in greater detail in chapter III - condemned the opinion of Jovinian, excommunicating him.

Jovinian took refuge in Milan. Pope St. Siricius sent a copy of the sentence of condemnation with three priests to the Bishop of Milan, St. Ambrose.

It is by the answering letter of St. Ambrose that we learn that Jovinian was denying, moreover, the perpetual virginity of Mary.

About the year 393, St. Ambrose condemned Jovinian in a synod at Milan.

In 398 the Emperor Honorius banished Jovinian to an island on the coast of Dalmatia.

Jovinian died before the year 406:

"Rather than expiring, he vomited out his last breath amid pheasants and swine flesh."5

Protestants have made of Jovinian one of the first victims of "Roman intolerance".

The Protestant Harnack says of him that he was "a Protestant before the name existed" that is to say "the first Protestant".

Ecclesiastical Writers Who Wrote Against Jovinian

  • Pope St. Siricius condemned his writings. (Letter 7, "Optarem", (Patrologia Latina XIII, 1168-1172).
  • St. Ambrose condemned Jovinian's opinion in his Letter
    42, "Recognovimus" (Patrologia Latina XVI, 1124-1129).
  • St. Jerome about the year 393-394 wrote his "Two Books against Jovinian" (Patrologia Latina, XXIII, 211-338), in which he calls him "the Christian Epicurus", "whose name is derived from that of an idol" (11,38).
  • St. Augustine took the occasion of the heresy of Jovinian to write, about the year 401, his beautiful moral treatises "De Bono Coniugali" and "De Sancta Virginitate".

References to Jovinian are also encountered in St. Vincent of Lerins, Pelagius, Julian of Eclanum, etc.

Chapter III

Pope St. Siricius

St. Siricius, a Roman Pope (384-399), successor of St. Damasus, was placed by Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) in the Roman Martyrology (26th November), because

"he was distinguished for his learning, piety and zeal for religion, condemning various heretics and strengthening ecclesiastical discipline by very salutary decrees".6

About the year 389 or 390 (according to others, in 392), St. Siricius summoned a council for all the Roman clergy in which he solemnly condemned the "temerarious composition" of Jovinian - which he called "a horrific writing" - and excommunicated him by name along with eight of his followers, declaring them "abettors of a new and blasphemous heresy".7

In his letter to the Church of Milan, the Pope declared:

"We certainly do not hold nuptial vows in contempt, but officially preside at the ceremony at which they are exchanged; but we honour with greater esteem virgins - born of marriages - who are consecrated to God."8

Chapter IV

Fathers of the Church

1.  St. Ambrose (c. 333-397)

In his letter 42, to Pope St. Siricius written about the year 392:

"We do not deny that matrimony was sanctified by Christ, who said with His divine voice, 'they shall be two in one flesh' (Matthew 19:5) and in one spirit, but what we are born comes before what we are made; and the ministry of the divine work is much more worthy than the remedy of human frailty. The good wife is rightly praised, but the pious virgin is better preferred".9

2.  St. John Chrysostom (344-407)

"Virginity is good and to this I agree; moreover it is better than matrimony, this too I confess. And if you wish to know how much better it is I shall add: by as much as heaven is better than earth, by as much as angels are better than men; would indeed that I might express the difference even more strongly and clearly" 10

3.  St. Augustine (354-430)

St. Augustine refers to the superiority of virginity principally in three works: De Bono Coniugali (401), De Sancta Virginitate (end of 401) and De Haeresibus (428).

(a) De Bono Coniugali (401) Chapter 8:
"...just as that which Martha did was good when she was occupied in the service of the saints, but that which her sister Mary did was better as she sat at the feet of the Lord listening to His word: so we praise the goodness of Susanna in conjugal chastity; but we still prefer to this the goodness of the widow Anna and much more so of the Virgin Mary"11

It is worth pointing out that this text is cited by St. Thomas in the Summa Theologiae, II-II, 153,2, in the response to the first objection.

Chapter 9:

"...and thus it is a good thing to marry because it is a good thing to procreate children and to be mothers (1 Timothy 5,14); but it is better not to marry since it is better for human society itself to have no need of this."

"Hence it is deduced that in the first days of the human race, especially in order to propagate the people of God of whom the Prince and Saviour of all nations was to be prophesied and born, pious folk were obliged to have recourse to the good of marriage not because it is in itself desirable but because it was necessary for extrinsic reasons. Now, however, when from every race and from every locality for the formation of a holy and perfect society the matrimonial bond is found in plentiful abundance, those who desire to be joined in matrimony, even for the sake of children alone, are to be advised that they ought rather to prefer the greater good of continence."

Chapter 11:

"Hence this was said in relation to the greater holiness of unmarried women over married women, (who deserve also a greater regard in so far as their good is better than the other good) that she [the unmarried woman] thinks of this one thing alone, how she may please the Lord."

Chapter 23:

"So if we compare the two things together, there is no room for doubt that the chastity of continence is better than nuptial chastity, although both are good; and if we compare men together, that man is better who has a greater good than another."

"Matrimony and virginity are certainly two goods of which the latter is the greater."

(b) De Sancta Virginitate (c. end of 401) Chapter 19:
"For since it is an error either to equate marriage with holy virginity, or to condemn it altogether, these two errors, by each one excessively fleeing from the other one, rush into headlong collision, since they do not wish to accept the middle way of truth; from which, both by sure reasoning and on the authority of Holy Scripture, we find that marriage is neither a sin, nor however as good as virginal continence or even the continence of widows."12

It is worth observing that St. Thomas, in the Summa Theologiae II-II, 152,4, where he asks "whether virginity is more excellent than matrimony," reproduces by way of reply the final part of this authoritative and definitive text of St. Augustine, beginning from "by sure reasoning and on the authority of Holy Scripture...

Chapter 21:

"We, however, according to the faith and sound doctrine of the Holy Scriptures do not say that marriage is sinful, but we rank its goodness not only below the goodness of virginal continence but even below the continence of widows; we say that the present necessity of married folk impedes their merit not indeed for eternal life, but for the surpassing glory and honour which is reserved to perpetual continence."

(c) De Haeresibus (428)
"Here too I found the Jovinianists whom I already knew. This heresy arose from Jovinian, a certain monk, in our age, while we were still young men. This man said, as did the Stoic philosophers, that all sins were equal and that, once he had received baptism, a man could no longer sin and that neither fasting nor abstinence from any kind of food was of any avail. He attacked the virginity of Mary, saying that she was corrupted in giving birth. He equated the virginity even of consecrated religious and the continence of the male sex in those saints who chose the celibate life with the merits of chaste and faithful spouses."13

4.  St John Damascene (end of the 7th century to before 754)

"Virginity is an angelic kind of life, being the peculiar mark of the whole of incorporeal nature. Neither do we say this in order to detract from marriage - far from it. For we know that the Lord blessed marriage with his presence and we know who it was who said, 'marriage honourable in all, and the bed undefiled' (Hebrews 13:4); but we say it because we recognise that, although marriage is in some ways good, virginity is better. "14

5.  St. Thomas.

We shall indicate the principal texts in the Summa Theologiae, in the Summa Contra Gentiles and in The Compendium of Theology.

1.  Summa Theologiae

At 11-11,152,4, St. Thomas inquires "whether virginity is more excellent than matrimony" and replies:

"As is established in Jerome's work Contra Jovinianum, it was the error of Jovinian to deny that virginity should be placed higher than matrimony. It is refuted above all by the example of Christ who both chose a Virgin Mother and Himself remained a virgin, and by the teaching of the Apostle who counsels virginity as the greater good.

"It is also refuted by reason. In the first place, because divine good is better than human good, in the second, because the values of the soul are to be chosen rather than those of the body and in the third because the values of the contemplative life are to be chosen rather than those of the active. Virginity is for the soul's good in the life of contemplation, mindful of the things of Good. Marriage is for the body's good in the life of action, namely the growth of the human race. For men and women who embrace matrimony must needs 'think of the things of this world,'15 to quote the Apostle. And so without doubt virginity is to be esteemed more highly than conjugal continence."

2.  Contra Gentiles

St. Thomas treats of this question in book III of the Contra Gentiles, chapters 136 and 137.

III Contra Gentiles, 136,4:

" abstain from all carnal pleasures without any reason is known as the vice of insensibility; but if this be done according to reason, it is a virtue which even exceeds the common practice of men, for it makes men to have a certain participation in the likeness of God; whence virginity is said to be related to the angels."

This theme of virginity which "makes us equal to the angels" is constant throughout Catholic tradition. It is found in all the Fathers of the Church and in the Magisterium itself. Since we cannot quote all of the texts, let one from Pope Pius XII suffice:

"But where immaculate marriages flourish, adorned with the Christian virtues, there exists and increases, side by side with them, chaste virginity, nourished by the love of Christ. Exhort your clergy, we implore you, to hold in great esteem and to cultivate religiously this highest form of life which makes men equal to the angels... "16

III Contra Gentiles, 137

It is above all in chapter 137 of book III of the Contra Gentiles that St. Thomas refutes the heresy of Jovinian which claimed that the matrimonial state is equal to continence.

In this regard, as the Leonine edition indicates, all the editions of the Contra Gentiles put as the title of this chapter,

"Against those who make matrimony equal to virginity"

"There are however others also who, although they did not reprove perpetual continence, yet equated it with the state of matrimony, which is the heresy of Jovinian. But the falsity of this error is sufficiently apparent from the foregoing, since by continence man is rendered better equipped for the elevation of his mind to spiritual and divine things, and is in a certain manner placed above the state of man in a certain likeness to the angels.

"Nor is it an objection that some men of the most perfect virtue were married, such as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; since the stronger the virtue of a soul is, the less can anything drag it down from its height. Nor however, since these men were married, did they love the contemplation of truth and divine things less; but, as the condition of that time required, they used marriage for the multiplication of the faithful people.

"Nor yet is the perfection of a particular individual a sufficient argument for the perfection of his state in life; since one person may use a lesser good with a more perfect spirit than another person might use a greater good. Therefore it is not true that, because Abraham or Moses was more perfect than many who remained continent, the state of marriage is on this account more perfect than the state of continence, or equal to it."

3.  Compendium of Theology

Chapter 221: That it was fitting that Christ was born of a virgin.

"But by as much as anyone is separated from carnal things, so much the more is he filled with spiritual gifts. For by spiritual things a man is led upwards, while by carnal things he is dragged downwards" (no. 451).

"For the Son of God came into this world, having assumed flesh, for this end - that He might lead us to the state of resurrection in which they neither marry nor are married but men will be as the angels in Heaven. For which reason He introduced the doctrine both of continence and of integrity so that in the life of the faithful an image of future glory might in some manner shine forth. It was, therefore, fitting that even in his own origin he should commend integrity of life by being born of a virgin; hence it is said in the Apostles' Creed, 'born of the Virgin Mary'" (no. 452).

Chapter VI

The Council of Trent

Canon 10 of Session 24 defined forever the traditional doctrine of the superiority of virginity.

To show the importance of this Canon, there could be no better explanatory context than the introduction to Session 24 itself, in which the doctrine concerning the Sacrament of Matrimony is expounded:

"With regard to this teaching, ungodly men of this age, raving madly, have not only formed false ideas concerning this venerable Sacrament, but, introducing a carnal liberty under the pretext of the Gospel as is their wont, have by word and writing asserted, not without great harm to the faithful of Christ, many things that are foreign to the teaching of the Catholic Church and to the usage approved of since the times of the Apostles; wherefore this holy and general Council, desiring to restrain their boldness, has thought it proper, lest their pernicious contagion should attract more adherents, that the principal heresies and errors of the aforesaid schismatics be destroyed by directing against those heretics and their errors the following anathemas. (Denzinger 970)

"Canon 10. If anyone should say that the married state should be preferred to the state of virginity or celibacy and that it is not better and more blessed to remain in virginity or celibate than to be united in matrimony, let him be anathema. (cf. Matthew 19:11; 1 Corinthians 7:25; 38-40)" (Denzinger 980)

Chapter VII

The Syllabus

The Syllabus of Pope Pius IX (1864) was entitled: "Syllabus comprising the principal errors of our age." Section VIII, which embraces propositions 65 to 74, treats of the "Errors concerning Christian Marriage", and after proposition 74 there is a Nota Bene:

"N.B. Two other errors can be included at this point - the abolition of clerical celibacy and preference for the state of matrimony over the state of virginity. The first of these errors is condemned in the encyclical letter Qui Pluribus, 9th November 1846, and the second in the apostolic letter Multiplies Inter, 10th June 1851." (Denzinger 1774a).

The apostolic letter Multiplices Inter was entitled:

"Condemnation and Prohibition of the work in six volumes produced in the Spanish language bearing the title Defence of the Authority of Governments and Bishops against the pretences of the Roman Curia by Francisco de Paula G. Vigil, Lima, 1848."

In it, Pius IX said the following:

"For the author, although a Catholic, and allegedly exercising the divine ministry, (... ) shamelessly assails the law of celibacy and, after the manner of the innovators, prefers the conjugal state to the state of virginity...".

Chapter VIII


In his letter of the 8th February 1893 - Novae Condendae Legis - addressed to the bishops of the province of Venice concerning the plan for civil marriage, Leo XIII expressed himself as follows:

"Virginity indeed is, in itself, better than matrimony, and those who are inspired by God to embrace this state of life are worthy of the highest praise; but this gift of perfect continence is not granted to all, in which case, according to the dictum of the Apostle 'it is better to marry than to be burnt.'"17

Chapter IX

Pius XII

The principal document of Pope Pius XII concerning this subject is his most beautiful encyclical Sacra Virginitas (1954) which is full of doctrinal unction. We shall also include however his other main texts from before and after the encyclical.

A.  Before "Sacra Virginitas"

1.  23rd September 1951 address to the discalced Carmelites:

"Nor should he who chose for himself the state of virginity undervalue or spurn marriage. Marriage is good, but virginity is better. The state of matrimony is honourable, but, as the Gospel itself bears witness, the state of virginity embraced for the love of Christ and fruitful in charity is more exalted... "18

2.  15th September 1952 address to the superiors of religious congregations:

"Today we wish to address Ourselves exclusively to those who, whether priests or laymen, preachers, orators or writers, no longer have a word of approval or of praise for virginity devoted to Christ; who for some years, despite the warning of the Church and against Her mind, have accorded to marriage a fundamental preference over virginity; who even go so far as to present it as the only means capable of assuring the human personality of its natural development and perfection: let those who speak and write in this manner take conscience of their responsibilities before God and before the Church. "19

3.  23rd November 1952 address to the youth of the "Oases":

"If it is certain that the family is the fundamental unit of society and that it is upon the reconstruction of the family that the renovation of the world depends, what a powerful impulse could be given by youth such as yourselves for the achievement of such an exalted and such an urgent end.' On the other hand, your consecration prepares young minds to accept, when Our Lord inspires them, their vocation to the religious life, which will always be a more perfect state than that of matrimony (which is nevertheless also holy)."20

B.  The Encyclical Letter "Sacra Virginitas" (25th March 1954).21

a) Reaffirmation of the "Catholic Truth" of the "Excellence of Virginity":

"Since however today there are those who, forsaking the right path in this matter, so far extol matrimony that they actually place it before virginity, and thereby impugn chastity dedicated to God and ecclesiastical celibacy, our awareness of our Apostolic Office demands that We declare and defend especially in this document the doctrine concerning the exalted honour of virginity, so that We may defend the Catholic Truth against these errors."

b) This doctrine was received from Christ:

"in the first place we consider that it should be noted that it was from the lips of Her Divine Spouse that the Church received the principal points of Her doctrine concerning virginity."

c) The foundation in Scripture and in reason for the excellence of virginity:

"For this reason it must first be affirmed - as the Church clearly teaches - that holy virginity surpasses matrimony in its excellence. Already our Divine Redeemer had urged this upon his disciples as a counsel of a more perfect life.22 And the Apostle Paul, after saying of a father who joined his daughter in matrimony, 'he doth well', adds this continuation, 'and he that giveth her not doth better.'23 And the same Apostle, in comparing marriage with virginity, reveals his opinion not only once, but especially with these words:
'for I would that all men were even as myself.. but I say to the unmarried and to the widows: it is good for them if they so continue, even as I.'24 So if virginity, as we have written, is more excellent than matrimony, there can be no doubt that this arises principally because it has regard to the acquisition of a more excellent end;25 and moreover because it also assists with the greatest efficacy in enslaving oneself entirely to the service of God; while by contrast the mind of one who is involved in the bonds and duties of wedlock is to a greater or lesser extent 'divided'.26

d) The traditional doctrine of the Church is defined as a dogma of divine faith:

"This doctrine, which affirms that virginity and celibacy are more excellent than, and surpass, the state of matrimony, was, as we have said, already revealed by our Divine Redeemer and by the Apostle of the Gentiles. Likewise it was solemnly defined in the most holy Council of Trent as a dogma of divine faith and always declared, with concordant judgment, by the Holy Fathers and Doctors of the Church. Moreover, like our predecessors, We Ourself whenever the occasion has arisen, have explained this matter more and more and greatly commended it. Nevertheless, since of late there have not been lacking those who would impugn this same doctrine passed on by our fathers in the Church, with grave danger and detriment to the faithful of Christ, we, in accordance with our awareness of our Office, have considered it expedient once more to summarise the matter by this Encyclical Letter and to unmask and condemn the errors of this kind which are very frequently put forward disguised as truth."

e) Virginity and Christian Perfection:

"Let us come now, Venerable Brethren, to those things which, arising from this doctrine of the Church concerning the excellence of virginity, can be put to practical effect in life.

"In the first place it must be openly declared that, although virginity is to be considered as more perfect than matrimony, it does not follow from this that it is necessary for the attainment of Christian perfection. Holiness of life, even without chastity dedicated to God, can in reality be attained; a fact which is frequently testified to by the holy men and women whom the Church honours with public devotion, and who are shining examples of faithful spouses and excellent fathers and mothers of families; indeed it is by no means a rare thing to encounter married couples who are very eagerly striving after Christian perfection."

C.  After "Sacra Virginitas"

1. 14th September 1956: Allocution to the participants in the sixth week of pastoral adaptation.

"The most recent encyclical, Sacra Virginitas of March 25th 1954, has shown you, among other things, the mind of the Church on the interminable debates of our contemporaries, especially the young, on the importance and even the absolute necessity - so some maintain - of marriage for the human person (who, without it would remain - according to them - a spiritual cripple), as also on the pretended superiority of Christian marriage and the conjugal act over virginity (which is not a sacrament producing effects ex opere operato.)"27

2. 25th April 1957: Allocution to the First National Italian Congress of Nursing Sisters.

"It is a truth of faith, recently recalled by us in the encyclical Sacra Virginitas under date of March 25th 1954, that virginity is superior to the married state because the virgin soul contracts bonds of absolute and indissoluble love directly with God, even more, with God incarnate Jesus Christ. In fact, all that she has received as a gift of God to be wife and mother, is offered to her as holocaust on the altar of a complete and perpetual renunciation. To reach the heart of God, to love Him and to be loved by Him, the virgin soul does not go through any other hearts, does not stop to treat with other creatures; nothing comes in between her and Jesus; no obstacle, no medium.

"On the contrary, marriage, while it is a real sacrament, one of the seven sources of grace instituted by Christ Himself; while it comprises the reciprocal offering of each of the parties to the other; while it brings about a real fusion of life and destiny, nonetheless includes, in God 's>eyes, something which is divided, something which is not completely given and which is not based upon complete surrender. Only virgin souls offer what for other souls who love is an inaccessible goal; for them the first rung of their ascent is also the last; it is the term of their development; it is at once both the summit and a profound abyss."28

3. 13th July 1958: Allocution to the Young Women of Catholic Action of Italy.

"On various occasions we have been obliged to condemn the error of those who assert that the Christian virgin is in some way mutilated, in some way incomplete, in some way incapable of achieving the perfection proper to her. Virginity, on the contrary, is, as it were, an angelic life. It is by its excellence a superior state to matrimony. But this superiority, on the other hand, removes nothing from the beauty and grandeur of married life."29

4. 29th July 1958: Papal Wireless Message to the Enclosed Religious of the Entire World.

"The Encyclical Sacra Virginitas treats in its first part of the excellence of virginity. It proves this excellence first of all by texts from the Gospel and by the very words of Christ; then by the declarations of the Apostle of the Gentiles concerning virginity chosen for God; it quotes St. Cyprian and St. Augustine, who demonstrate the power of its effects; it emphasises the importance of the vow which confers upon virginity the constancy of the virtue; it demonstrates its superiority over marriage; it illustrates all of the divine blessings which that state attracts and the admirable fruits which it produces."30

What a beautiful synthesis of Sacra Virginitas by its author himself, and the last reference which he made to this subject which preoccupied him so much; that was on the 29th July 1958. Two and a half months later, on the 9th October 1958, after almost twenty years of his pontificate, the "Angelic Pastor" rendered his soul to the Lord.

Chapter X


I.  Jovinian, "the first Protestant" (Harnack):-
i. equated matrimony with virginity: "That is the heresy of Jovinian." (St. Thomas)
ii. 'maintained that Catholics favoured the Manichees, because (...) they preferred holy virginity to matrimony." (St. Augustine)
iii. his doctrine was qualified as "a horrifying document" and condemned as "a new and blasphemous heresy" in 390 by Pope St. Siricius.

II.  Virginity - Superior to Matrimony...

i. "Matrimony and virginity are undoubtedly two good things, of which the second is greater." (St. Augustine)
ii. Without any doubt virginity must be preferred to conjugal continence." (St. Thomas)
iii. Virginity (...) is, as it were, an angelic state of life. It is a state which, by its excellence, is superior to matrimony." (Pope Pius XII)
iv. "Matrimony is good, but virginity is better; the state of matrimony is honourable, but more exalted is - as the Gospel itself bears witness - the state of virginity." (Pope Pius XII)

III.  It is a Dogma of Divine Faith.

"This doctrine, which affirms the advantages and excellencies of virginity and of celibacy over matrimony":-

i. is "a traditional doctrine of the Church".
ii. it was revealed by Our Divine Redeemer and by the Apostle of the Gentiles ("the Church has received the principal points of her doctrine concerning virginity from the very lips of her divine spouse "
iii. it was always declared, with unanimous agreement, by the Holy Fathers and Doctors of the Church.
iv. "in the holy Council of Trent it was solemnly defined as a dogma of divine faith." (Pope Pius XII)

"If anyone should say that the married state should be preferred to the state of virginity or of celibacy and that it is not better and more blessed to remain in virginity or celibate than to be united in matrimony, let him be anathema." (Council of Trent; Denzinger 980.)



On the Easter Wednesday, 14th April 1982, John Paul II referred twice in the same day to the relation between virginity and matrimony.


Allocution to Spanish Delegations in St. Peter's Square (14th April 1982) (Delivered in Spanish).

(...) "And now, as in previous weeks, we are going to continue our reflections upon the theme of continence for the Kingdom of Heaven. IN THE WORDS OF CHRIST WE DO NOT FIND A SUPERIOR EVALUATION OF VIRGINITY OR CELIBACY WITH RESPECT TO MATRIMONY. Continence and matrimony are two basic situations, two 'states' of life, which differ from one another and complement one another within the Christian community. It is precisely this which in its unity and in all of its members has an eschatological orientation and in this distinct tendency is realised for the Kingdom of Heaven.

"The perfection of the disciple of Christ would not then be gauged simply by belonging to one of these states, the gauge of the perfection of the Christian life is charity, in the acquisition of which the practice of the evangelical counsels is undoubtedly helpful. Hence it is that everyone who is faithful to the spirit of these counsels can reach perfection, be he in a religious institute or living in the world.

"With a great desire that every Christian should lead a life in conformity with the teachings of Christ, I impart the apostolic benediction. "31


Catechesis in the General Audience of Wednesday 14th April 1982.

"Let us now continue our reflections of recent weeks on the words about continence 'for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven' which, according to the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 19:10-12), Christ addressed to his disciples.

"Let us say once more that these words, concise though they be, are admirably rich and precise; rich with a number of implications both of a doctrinal and a pastoral nature. At the same time they establish a proper limit on the subject. Therefore, any kind of Manichaean interpretation32 decidedly goes beyond that limit, just as the lustful desire 'in the heart' referred to by Christ in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 5:27-28) also goes beyond it.

"IN CHRIST'S WORDS ON CONTINENCE 'FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN' THERE IS NO REFERENCE TO THE 'INFERIORITY' OF MARRIAGE with regard to the 'body', or in other words, with regard to the essence of marriage, consisting in the fact that man and woman join together in marriage, thus becoming 'one flesh' (Genesis 2:24: 'The two will become one flesh'). CHRIST'S WORDS RECORDED IN MATTHEW 19: 11-12 (AS ALSO THE WORDS OF PAUL IN HIS FIRST LETTER TO THE CORINTHIANS, CHAPTER 7) GIVE NO REASON33 TO ASSERT THE 'INFERIORITY' OF MARRIAGE, NOR THE 'SUPERIORITY' OF VIRGINITY OR CELIBACY inasmuch as by their nature virginity and celibacy consist in abstinence from the conjugal 'union in the body'. Christ's words on this point are quite clear. He proposes to his disciples the ideal of continence and the call to it, not by reason of inferiority nor with prejudice against conjugal 'union of the body' but only 'for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven;".34

"2. In this light a deeper clarification of the very expression 'for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven' is particularly useful, and this is what we shall try to do in the following, at least briefly. However, with regard to the correct understanding of the relationship between marriage and continence that Christ speaks about, and the understanding of that relationship as the whole of tradition has understood it, it is worthwhile to add that that 'superiority' and 'inferiority' fall within the limits of the same complementarity of marriage and continence35 for the Kingdom of God.

"Marriage and continence are neither opposed to each other nor do they divide the human (and Christian) community into two camps (let us say, those who are 'perfect' because of continence and those who are 'imperfect' or 'less perfect' because of the reality of married life). But these two basic situations, or, as it was often said, these two 'states', in a certain sense explain and complete each other as regards the (Christian) existence and life of this community, which in its entirety and in each of its members is fulfilled in the dimension of the Kingdom of God and has an eschatological orientation, which is precisely of that kingdom. So with regard to this dimension and this orientation - in which the entire community, that is, all of those who belong to it, must share in the faith - continence 'for the Kingdom of Heaven' has a particular importance and a special eloquence for those who live a married life. Besides, it is known that these latter constitute the majority."

"3. It therefore seems that a complementarity understood in this way finds its foundation in the words of Christ according to Matthew l9:ll-l236 (and also in the First Letter to the Corinthians, chapter 737) On the other hand, there is no basis for a presumed counterposition according to which celibates (or unmarried women), only by reason of their continence, would make up the class of those who are 'perfect', while on the other hand, married persons would makeup a class of those who are 'imperfect' (or 'less perfect').38 If, according to a certain theological tradition,39 one speaks of a state of perfection ("status perfectionis"), it is done not by reason of continence in itself, but with regard to the entirety of a life based on the evangelical counsels (poverty, chastity and obedience40), since this life corresponds to Christ's call to perfection ('If you would be perfect...': Mt. 19-21). Perfection of the Christian life, instead, is measured with the rule of charity.41 It follows that a person who does not live in the state of perfection' (that is, in an institution that bases its life plan on vows of poverty, chastity and obedience), or, in other words, who does not live in a religious institute, but in the 'world', can, 'de_facto'42 reach a superior degree of perfection - whose measure is charity - in comparison to the person who lives in the 'state of perfection' with a lesser degree of charity. In any case, the evangelical counsels undoubtedly help us to achieve a fuller charity. Therefore, whoever achieves it, even if he does not live in an institutionalised 'state of perfection,' reaches that perfection which flows from charity through fidelity to the spirit of those counsels43. Such perfection is possible and accessible to every man, both in a 'religious institute' and in the 'world'.44

"4. It seems then that the complementarity of marriage and continence for 'the Kingdom of Heaven' in their significance and manifold importance adequately corresponds to Christ's words recorded in Matthew (Mt. 19: 11-12). In the life in an authentically Christian community the attitudes and values proper to the one and the other state45 - that is, to one or the other essential and conscious choice as a vocation for one's entire earthly life and in the perspective of the 'heavenly Church' - they complete and in a certain sense interpenetrate each other.46 Perfect conjugal love must be marked by that fidelity and that donation to the only Spouse (and also by the fidelity and donation of the Spouse to the only Bride), on which religious profession and priestly celibacy are founded. Finally, the nature of one and the other love is 'conjugal', that is expressed through the total gift of oneself. Both types of love tend to express that conjugal meaning of the body which 'from the beginning' has been inscribed in the personal make-up of man and woman.

"We shall return to this point at a later date.

"5. On the other hand, conjugal love which finds its expression in continence 'for the Kingdom of Heaven' must lead in its normal development to 'paternity' or 'maternity' in a spiritual sense (in other words, precisely to that 'fruitfulness of the Holy Spirit' that we have already spoken about) in a way analogous to conjugal love, which matures in physical paternity and maternity,47 and in this way confirms itself as conjugal love. For its part, physical procreation also fully responds to its meaning only if it is completed by paternity and maternity in the spirit,48 whose expression and fruit is all the educative work of the parents in regard to the children born of their conjugal corporeal union.

"As can be seen, there are many aspects and spheres of the complementarity49 between the vocation in an evangelical sense, of those who 'marry and are given in marriage' (Luke 20:34) and of those who knowingly and voluntarily choose continence 'for the Kingdom of Heaven' (Mt. 19:12).

"In his First Letter to the Corinthians (which we will analyse later in our consideration), Saint Paul will write on the subject: 'Each has his special gift from God, one of one kind and one of another (1 Corinthians 7:7).'"

(The translation of the whole of the "Catechesis in the General Audience of Wednesday 14th April 1982" is taken from the English edition of L'Osservatore Romano, 19th April 1982, p.10, with the exception of one or two infelicities which have been improved by the translator. The emphases, however, were not in the English edition and were superimposed on the translation from the Spanish edition cited by Professor Corbi, which concurs with the original Italian. - Translator.)

Colophon for Interpreters and
Specialists in Hermeneutics

Note that the whole of the modernistic, equivocal and nebulous allocution comprising the "catechesis" of the general audience, is SUMMARIZED WITH THE GREATEST CLARITY in the first allocution in St. Peter's Square on the SAME DAY (cf. p.25 above). 'THERE IS NO ROOM FOR BENEVOLENT INTERPRETATIONS.' There is no place for the principles which the scholastics understood by the formulae "exponere reverenter" and "benigne interpretandum est."
General Discussion / felix festum Seraphicæ Virgini...
Last post by Geremia - April 30, 2018, 01:19:48 PM
Bl. Raymond of Capua, Legenda maior, III.1.334.937C-D:
Summus autem Pontifex [Gregorius XI] ea visa gavisus est, voluitque coram Cardinalibus, qui tunc aderant, quod verbum faceret exhortationis, potissime propter schisma, quod tunc incipiebat.The Supreme Pontiff [Gregory XI] was clearly delighted to see her again and asked her to say a few words of encouragement to the Cardinals, especially with regard to the Schism, which had then just begun.
Quod et perfecte fecit, animando unumquemque eorum ad fortem constantiam verbis et sententiis plurimis, ac ostendendo divinam providentiam semper adesse cuilibet, sed potissime cum sancta Ecclesia patitur: et concludendo, quod propter inchoatum schisma in nullo trepidare deberent, sed agere quæ Dei sunt, et nullum timere.[She] urged them with many arguments, which she expressed most felicitously, to be strong in constancy. She showed that divine providence is always with us, above all when the Church has to suffer, and ended by telling them not to be afraid of the schism that had just begun and to do the things of God and to fear no one.
[dixit Pontifex:] hæc muliercula nos confundit. Mulierculam autem voco, non in contemptum ejus sed in expressionem sexus feminei, naturaliter fragilis, et ad nostram instructionem.[The Pope said:] A mere woman puts us to shame. I call her a 'mere woman', not out of disrespect, but with reference to her sex, which in itself is weak, and also for our own instruction.
Anti-Modernism / interesting parts of Cdl. Otta...
Last post by Geremia - April 21, 2018, 11:55:23 AM
I especially liked these parts:

His "Mariological maximalism":
Quote5. Immaculatam semperque Virginem Mariam, Dei Genitricem hominumque Matrem*, ab Ecclesia singulariter colendam testificor, eiusque cultu genuino cultum Dei et Iesu Christi, non minui, immo potius augeri declaro.
*Interesting he doesn't say "hominumque omnium Matrem" here, but he doesn't exclude it.

He goes further than Vatican I here by using the word demonstrated (which the Vatican I fathers considered saying, but ultimately rejected):
Quote3. Ac primum profiteor Deum personalem, rerum omnium principium et finem, naturali rationis lumine, per ea quae facta sunt, tamquam causam per effectus, certo cognosci adeoque demonstrari posse, eundemque ut Dominum supremum non tantum a singulis hominibus,* sed etiam a civili societate esse agnoscendum.**
*Against today's radical individualism!
**Yes, societies as a whole must acknowledge Him, as a nation is simply a "soul written at large"!
Catholic Resources / Re: New / Wikki...
Last post by Geremia - April 20, 2018, 08:55:45 PM
What's the status of It seems to have lost the church I submitted.
Anti-Modernism / Vatican II doesn't define orig...
Last post by Geremia - April 20, 2018, 12:54:19 PM
Despite Cdl. Ottaviani's excellent Formula Nova Professionis Fidei, a combination of the Tridentine Profession and the Oath Aganist Modernism, to be recited by Vatican II participants (AD, II-II/1:495-497)--English excerpt De Mattei 2013 II.8.b, ¶¶11-end (¶18):
QuoteI acknowledge with sincere faith original sin, through which all men have sinned in their first father, Adam, (as a) sin strictly speaking that is transmitted by generation and belongs to each individual.

I acknowledge as absolutely certain signs the external proofs of revelation, and first of all the miracles and the prophecies, through which without any doubt it is demonstrated that the Christian religion has a divine origin, and I maintain that even today it is suited to the human intellect. I also maintain that the Church itself, considered per se, on account of its universal unity, its sublime holiness, its inexhaustible fruitfulness in all good things, its marvelous diffusion, and its invincible firmness, is a perpetual reason for belief and an indisputable testimony to its divine inheritance.

I sincerely accept the doctrine of the faith handed down to us by the apostles by way of the orthodox fathers with the same meaning and with the same expressions. Therefore, even though the Church grows in its understanding of revealed truth, I nevertheless reject as heretical the opinion of the evolution of dogmas which with the passage of time take on a different meaning from the one that the Church taught once and for all.

I hold that the deposit of faith, that is to say, the word of God written or handed down by the apostles, is complete. I firmly hold that sacred scripture, free of all error, must be explained with the guidance of the magisterium of the faith, according to the norm of tradition and according to the analogy of the faith.

I profess that faith is not just an obscure religious sentiment or just an opinion of the mind, but a true assent of the intellect to the truth, received from outside by hearing, through which we believe what has been revealed and testified by a personal God, because of the authority of God who is supremely truthful, and in believing in him we offer the full submission of our intellect and will, with the inspiration and the help of God's grace.

I profess without any doubt all of the other truths defined and proclaimed by the ecumenical councils and above all by the sacred Council of Trent and the First Vatican Ecumenical Council, particularly with regard to the primacy of jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff and his infallible magisterium, and so I condemn and reject what has been condemned and rejected in those same councils and in the encylical letters, especially Pascendi and Humani generis.

This true Catholic faith, apart from which no one can be saved, I now profess freely, and I sincerely uphold it, and I will strive so that it may be preserved whole and inviolate by me and by those who are subject to me, until the final breath of my life, with utmost firmness and absolute constancy, with the help of God.

And so I myself, N., in the presence of God and of Jesus Christ, who will judge me worthy of eternal life or everlasting punishment, do promise, vow, and swear.
--and the Preparatory Commission's excellent On defending intact the deposit of faith ch. 8 on original sin, Vatican II only mentions original sin 3×, once each in Inter mirifica, Lumen gentium, and Apostolicam actuositatem, and in no cases does it actually say what original sin is!

(cf. De Mattei 2013 II.10.a, which shows that Cdl. Bea liberalized exegesis to such an extent that some even denied Rom. 5:12 refers to original sin!)
Dogma & Doctrine / Table of Marriage Validity & L...
Last post by Geremia - April 12, 2018, 10:30:41 AM
Quote from: Mithrandylan on November 09, 2017, 10:19:10 AMThis is not an authoritative source, but merely a table of possible spousal combinations and places/conditions of marriage, along with a corresponding note of validity and lawfulness for each scenario.  The table itself was initially designed by Geremia here and I filled it in.  The version hosted here contains the same content, but has been reformatted for much easier readability.  I intend to post a .pdf version eventually, too.


[1] [Civil Marriage] "Marriage between unbaptized persons is subject to the civil power, and in the case of these marriages the civil law has the right to determine the condition of the validity as well as the liceity of these marriage contracts.  However, the civil power is bound to respect the divine law on marriage, and all civil laws which contradict the divine law are necessarily null and void" (Woywod vol. 1, p. 647 1957 ed.).
[2] [Marriage outside the Catholic Church] Canon 1094: "General Principle: Church Law requires for the validity of marriage that it be celebrated in the presence of the pastor or Ordinary of the place, or of a priest delegated by either of these, and at least two witnesses...

..."The Following Persons are obliged to observe the form above prescribed:

1) All who are baptized in the Catholic Church or who have been converted to it from heresy or schism, even though the former or the latter may later have left the Church, whenever the contract marriage among themselves;

2) The same persons above mentioned, if they contract marriage with non-Catholics, either baptized or not baptized, even after obtaining a dispensation from the impediment of mixed religion or disparity of cult" (Bouscaren and Ellis, 1946, C. 1094, p. 516).
[3] [Civil Marriage between two Catholics as Valid and Licit] "If the civil law demands it, the Church does not censure parties for appearing even before a non-Catholic minister who is acting merely as an official of the government, provided that their purpose is solely to comply with the civil law and to get civil recognition of their marriage" (Woywod., p. 704).
[4] [Civil Marriage between two Catholics as Valid and Licit]
"Also note that Canon 1098 provides for Catholics who, if their pastor is unavailable to witness their marriage for the foreseeable future (a month), they are allowed to validly marry before witnesses only, and the canon does not require that these witnesses be Catholic.  So in such a situation, a civil ceremony would suffice" (Woywod p. 705). [Also see "Regarding Canon 1098" at the end of the notes].
[5] [Civil Marriage between two Catholics as Invalid and Illicit] It would be invalid and illicit, taking into account the principles from [2] and the details of canon 1099, if the couple forewent the religious ceremony in favor of the civil ceremony.  Note that the civil officiation of the marriage does not make it valid or licit, but only under certain conditions simply makes it allowable, provided that canon 1094 is followed.
[6] [Marriage by two Catholics in the Catholic Church without the Bishop's Permission] Does not seem possible; the bishops permission is not required except inasmuch as the couple are to be married in front of their pastor who is deputed by the bishop to act on his behalf.  So in the rare and unusual instance that a couple, though free to marry, are for some reason forbidden by their pastor from marrying (something he does not, to my knowledge, have the power to do), and they go and get married in a different parish, one might perhaps face this instance.  But it would still seem valid and lawful.
[7] [Marriage between two Catholics outside the Catholic Church with Bishop's Permission] Does not seem possible at all.
[8] [Marriage between two Catholics outside the Catholic Church without Bishop's Permission as invalid and illicit] See Note [2].  Also, regard later notes re: C. 1098
[9] [Civil Marriage between a Catholic and a non-Catholic as invalid and illicit] It depends on whether or not the baptized non-Catholic was baptized in the Catholic Church.  See note [2] and notes [3-5]

[10] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic in the Catholic Church with the Bishop's Permission as valid and licit] The impediment of mixed religion may be dispensed from, rendering the marriage lawful and valid.  Note that mixed religion never (by itself) renders a marriage invalid (Woywod, p. 670).  The conditions for the dispensation to be granted is moral certainty on the part of the bishop that the non-Catholic party will at least not interfere with the upbringing of Catholic children and will not interfere with the Catholic life and duty of the family.
[11] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic in the Catholic Church, without the Bishop's permission as valid and illicit] "Canon 1060. The Church everywhere most severely forbids the contracting of marriage between two baptized persons of whom one is a Catholic whereas the other is a member of a heretical or schismatical sect; and if there is danger of perversion for the Catholic party and the children, the marriage is forbidden also by the divine law itself" (Bouscaren and Ellis, p. 458 ).
My comment: without a dispensation (i.e., the permission of the ordinary), the marriage would be unlawful.
[12] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic outside the Catholic Church with the Bishop's permission as valid and licit] This would require not only a dispensation from the impediment but also a dispensation to the Catholic party to dispense them from observing the Catholic form of marriage.
[13] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic outside the Catholic Church without the Bishop's permission as valid and licit] Theoretically lawful and valid according to canon 1098.  [See also note [4] and "Regarding Canon 1098" at the end of the notes].

[14] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic outside the Catholic Church without the bishop's permission as valid and illicit] Theoretically valid but unlawful according to canon 1098 depending on why the bishop's permission was not given-- was he appealed to?  Could he be appealed to?  etc. This note is not substantially different from the previous note.  It's a very complicated situation. [See also note [4] and "Regarding Canon 1098" at the end of the notes].
[15] [Marriage between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic outside the Catholic Church, without the Bishop's permission as invalid and illicit] Without any extenuating circumstance (such as one which would make canon 1098 applicable), the marriage would be invalid for wont of form and the lack of dispensation allowing the Catholic to marry elsewhere.
[16] [Civil Marriage between a Catholic and a non-baptized as valid and licit] This is the impediment of disparity of cult (C. 1070), which renders a marriage invalid unless dispensed from (Woywod p. 712, see note [17]).  So if this couple marries civilly without sufficient reason/dispensation, it is an invalid marriage.  If, however, a dispensation is granted and the marriage before civil authorities is simply to gain civil benefits and recognition while the couple intend to or already have married in the Church with the proper dispensation and form, see note [3].
[17] [Marriage between a Catholic and a non-baptized without the Bishop's permission, regardless of place] Marriage between a person baptized in the Catholic Church, or received into the Church from heresy or schism, and an unbaptized person is null and void" (Woywod p. 712, C. 1070)

[18] [All marriages where both parties are not baptized] The Church's law does not govern infidels.  Such persons are capable of contracting natural marriages that are valid and lawful inasmuch as they meet the conditions established for validity and liciety according to whatever governing body to whom they answer.

Regarding Canon 1098: Canon 1098 is, in my opinion (so take it for what it's worth), a law which dispenses parties from the requirement to observe the proper form of marriage, i.e., it dispenses from the requirement to marry in front of one's pastor under pain of invalidity.
My opinion is based on the fact that the canon itself makes no requirement regarding the quality of witnesses (that is, it does not require them to be Catholic), nor have I ever read any commentators who require such a thing--indeed, most who write about the canon presuppose that this is not the case (i.e., when a couple to whom canon 1098 applies decide to marry in front of a civil official).
If that is the case, and I believe it is, then as a general (though exceptional) rule given the current ecclesiastical crisis, we can view the marriages between Catholics who marry outside the Church, and between Catholics and the baptized non-Catholics who marry outside the Church, as valid.

This study goes into great detail on the matter and echoes my own view about it.
Presumption of Validity: To bolster that contention, I would point out that marriage is a unique sacrament because it enjoys the favor of the law.  That means that regardless of the type of doubt which may occur after the attempted contracting of marriage, marriages are presumed valid until and unless they are proven invalid.
Baptized in the Catholic Church: This term causes some confusion.  It is not a colloquial expression, but a technical term in canon law.  In principle, it has nothing at all to do with the actual minister or even the place of baptism but with the intent of the person who is seeking baptism (or in the case of infants, the intent of the parents who seek to secure baptism for their child).
Here is Woywod on the term:
Quote"The term 'baptized in the Catholic Church' creates some difficulty, especially in cases of baptism administered by lay persons.  In the first place, if the father and mother, or at least one of them, are Catholics and adhere to the Church, the infant baptized at the request of the Catholic party by a non-Catholic doctor or nurse in a case of emergency may still be considered baptized in the Catholic Church, for there is but one baptism, and whether the reception of that baptism means the joining of the Catholic Church or of some non-Catholic denomination depends on the will of the person who has the right and duty to care for the welfare of the infant.  If neither parent adheres to the Catholic Church (i.e., if both are Protestants or apostate Catholics), but one of them consents to have the infant baptized by a Catholic priest, one must know whether some guarantee was given of the Catholic education of the child; if so, the child was by the will of the parent legitimately enrolled in the Catholic Church.  If such guarantee was not given, no Catholic priest or layman had the right to baptized the child, and it was not legitimately enrolled in the Church Church, except in urgent danger of death... The Committee for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code declared on April 29, 1940, that persons born of non-Catholics and baptized in the Catholic Church, but not raised as Catholics, are subject to the impediment of disparity of cult according to Canon 1070 when they marry unbaptized persons" (Woywod p. 713-14).

Again, "baptized in the Catholic Church" is not a "common sense" term, not a general colloquialism, or anything of the like.  It is a technical term with an intended legal meaning and legal consequences in this context.  Apostates, for instance, would be "baptized in the Catholic Church" and despite their current-non-membership and rejection of the Church, they would be bound by this law.  The Church normally governs only members in the sense that most of her laws apply only to members, but by divine right she has jurisdiction over all the baptized, and it is her jurisprudential prerogative to decide the extent to which she imposes her laws on them.

Purpose of Table: This is all my own opinion based on the sources provided.  It's not uncommon for questions about marital validity to pop up around the forums, so I thought having this table would be useful.  The table itself was designed by Geremia and posted on CI a while back, with a request for someone to fill it in.  I am more than happy to receive any corrections or additions to the table if I've got something wrong.

Please also note that when I reference a marriage as lawful, that doesn't necessarily mean that either party attempting the marriage is free of all guilt.  For instance, while I believe that the marriage between two Catholics in front of a Lutheran minister can be lawful, I do not mean to imply by this that the parties necessarily act with all moral uprightness in so marrying, only that the marriage itself is not unlawful.  Other Catholic and moral principles that are distinct from marriage law still apply to all individuals.

Furthermore, a note of validity assumes that parties are free to marry and that there are no other impediments which would render the marriage invalid.  In cases where other diriment impediments are present, those can of course render a marriage null regardless of who the parties are and where (and in front of whom) they marry.
Dogma & Doctrine / St. Robert's «De Matrimonio» (...
Last post by Geremia - April 12, 2018, 10:26:55 AM
St. Robert's De Matrimonio treatise is in De controversiis tome 3 (DjVu pp. 779ff.  or here).

Ryan Grant of Mediatrix Press plans to translate all of De controversiis, so he'll get to the De matrimonio at some point.

English translations of parts of St. Robert's De Matrimonio exist in Cormac Burke's The Theology of Marriage:
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 2 (Burke p. 38n19)Marriage could not signify that [the union of Christ and the church], unless between husband and wife, over and beyond the civil contract, there were also a spiritual union of souls. ... If God joins man and woman for this purpose, that by their spiritual union they should signify the spiritual union of Christ and the Church, he then doubtlessly gives them the grace without which they could not achieve that spiritual union.
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 5 (Burke p. 84n29)[Matrimony] is a union that consecrates and sanctifies souls [unio sacrans, et sanctificans animas].
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 6 (Burke p. 34n6 & Pius XI's Casti Connubii §110)The sacrament of matrimony can be regarded in two ways: first, in the making, and then in its permanent state. For it is a sacrament like that of the Eucharist, which not only when it is being conferred, but also while it remains, is a sacrament; for as long as the married parties are alive, so long is their union a sacrament of Christ and the Church.
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 6 (Burke p. 200n47)The third end is that marriage be a remedy against concupiscence [Tertius finis est ut sit coniugium in remedium contra concupiscentiam].
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 7 (Burke p. 7n8)The Council [of Trent] does not acknowledge any difference between Matrimony in ancient times, whether before or after the sin of Adam, and Matrimony as it is a Sacrament of the new law, insofar as concerns the rite. It places the distinction in that the latter is a cause of grace, while the former was not. According to the Council of Trent therefore, the matter, form and minister of the Sacrament of Matrimony are the same as they were in the Marriages of the ancients, which were not Sacraments.
Quote from: De Matrimonio ch. 14 (Burke p. 9n14). St. Robert summarizes the erroneous claim of Melchior Cano, O.P., that a priest's blessing constitutes the form of matrimonyif matrimony is truly a sacrament, then, besides the civil contract, it should have some sacred form, as well as an ecclesiastical minister.
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