St. Thomas Aquinas

The Summa Theologica

(Benziger Bros. edition, 1947)
Translated by
Fathers of the English Dominican Province


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Question: 38  [<< | >>]


Consequenter quaeritur de dono. Et circa hoc quaeruntur duo.    There now follows the consideration of the Gift; concerning which there are two points of inquiry:
Primo, utrum donum possit esse nomen personale.     (1) Whether "Gift" can be a personal name?
Secundo, utrum sit proprium spiritus sancti.     (2) Whether it is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?


Index  [<< | >>]
First Part  [<< | >>]
Question: 38  [<< | >>]
Article: 1  [<< | >>]

Whether "Gift" is a personal name?

Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod donum non sit nomen personale. Omne enim nomen personale importat aliquam distinctionem in divinis. Sed nomen doni non importat aliquam distinctionem in divinis, dicit enim Augustinus, XV de Trin., quod spiritus sanctus ita datur sicut Dei donum, ut etiam seipsum det sicut Deus. Ergo donum non est nomen personale.   Objection 1: It would seem that "Gift" is not a personal name. For every personal name imports a distinction in God. But the name of "Gift" does not import a distinction in God; for Augustine says (De Trin. xv, 19): that "the Holy Ghost is so given as God's Gift, that He also gives Himself as God." Therefore "Gift" is not a personal name.
Praeterea, nullum nomen personale convenit essentiae divinae. Sed essentia divina est donum quod pater dat filio, ut patet per Hilarium, IX de Trin. Ergo donum non est nomen personale.   Objection 2: Further, no personal name belongs to the divine essence. But the divine essence is the Gift which the Father gives to the Son, as Hilary says (De Trin. ix). Therefore "Gift" is not a personal name.
Praeterea, secundum Damascenum, nihil est subiectum aut serviens in divinis personis. Sed donum importat quandam subiectionem et ad eum cui datur, et ad eum a quo datur. Ergo donum non est nomen personale.   Objection 3: Further, according to Damascene (De Fide Orth. iv, 19) there is no subjection nor service in the divine persons. But gift implies a subjection both as regards him to whom it is given, and as regards him by whom it is given. Therefore "Gift" is not a personal name.
Praeterea, donum importat respectum ad creaturam, et ita videtur de Deo dici ex tempore. Sed nomina personalia dicuntur de Deo ab aeterno, ut pater et filius. Ergo donum non est nomen personale.   Objection 4: Further, "Gift" imports relation to the creature, and it thus seems to be said of God in time. But personal names are said of God from eternity; as "Father," and "Son." Therefore "Gift" is not a personal name.
Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, XV de Trin., sicut corpus carnis nihil aliud est quam caro, sic donum spiritus sancti nihil aliud est quam spiritus sanctus. Sed spiritus sanctus est nomen personale. Ergo et donum.   On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. xv, 19): "As the body of flesh is nothing but flesh; so the gift of the Holy Ghost is nothing but the Holy Ghost." But the Holy Ghost is a personal name; so also therefore is "Gift."
Respondeo dicendum quod in nomine doni importatur aptitudo ad hoc quod donetur. Quod autem donatur, habet habitudinem et ad id a quo datur, et ad id cui datur, non enim daretur ab aliquo nisi esset eius; et ad hoc alicui datur, ut eius sit. Persona autem divina dicitur esse alicuius, vel secundum originem, sicut filius est patris; vel inquantum ab aliquo habetur. Habere autem dicimur id quo libere possumus uti vel frui, ut volumus. Et per hunc modum divina persona non potest haberi nisi a rationali creatura Deo coniuncta. Aliae autem creaturae moveri quidem possunt a divina persona; non tamen sic quod in potestate earum sit frui divina persona, et uti effectu eius. Ad quod quandoque pertingit rationalis creatura; ut puta cum sic fit particeps divini verbi et procedentis amoris, ut possit libere Deum vere cognoscere et recte amare. Unde sola creatura rationalis potest habere divinam personam. Sed ad hoc quod sic eam habeat, non potest propria virtute pervenire, unde oportet quod hoc ei desuper detur; hoc enim dari nobis dicitur, quod aliunde habemus. Et sic divinae personae competit dari, et esse donum.   I answer that, The word "gift" imports an aptitude for being given. And what is given has an aptitude or relation both to the giver and to that to which it is given. For it would not be given by anyone, unless it was his to give; and it is given to someone to be his. Now a divine person is said to belong to another, either by origin, as the Son belongs to the Father; or as possessed by another. But we are said to possess what we can freely use or enjoy as we please: and in this way a divine person cannot be possessed, except by a rational creature united to God. Other creatures can be moved by a divine person, not, however, in such a way as to be able to enjoy the divine person, and to use the effect thereof. The rational creature does sometimes attain thereto; as when it is made partaker of the divine Word and of the Love proceeding, so as freely to know God truly and to love God rightly. Hence the rational creature alone can possess the divine person. Nevertheless in order that it may possess Him in this manner, its own power avails nothing: hence this must be given it from above; for that is said to be given to us which we have from another source. Thus a divine person can "be given," and can be a "gift."
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod nomen doni importat distinctionem personalem, secundum quod donum dicitur esse alicuius per originem. Et tamen spiritus sanctus dat seipsum, inquantum est sui ipsius, ut potens se uti, vel potius frui; sicut et homo liber dicitur esse sui ipsius. Et hoc est quod Augustinus dicit, super Ioan., quid tam tuum est quam tu? Vel dicendum, et melius, quod donum oportet esse aliquo modo dantis. Sed hoc esse huius dicitur multipliciter. Uno modo, per modum identitatis, sicut dicit Augustinus super Ioan., et sic donum non distinguitur a dante, sed ab eo cui datur. Et sic dicitur quod spiritus sanctus dat se. Alio modo dicitur aliquid esse alicuius ut possessio vel servus, et sic oportet quod donum essentialiter distinguatur a dante. Et sic donum Dei est aliquid creatum. Tertio modo dicitur hoc esse huius per originem tantum, et sic filius est patris, et spiritus sanctus utriusque. Inquantum ergo donum hoc modo dicitur esse dantis, sic distinguitur a dante personaliter, et est nomen personale.   Reply to Objection 1: The name "Gift" imports a personal distinction , in so far as gift imports something belonging to another through its origin. Nevertheless, the Holy Ghost gives Himself, inasmuch as He is His own, and can use or rather enjoy Himself; as also a free man belongs to himself. And as Augustine says (In Joan. Tract. xxix): "What is more yours than yourself?" Or we might say, and more fittingly, that a gift must belong in a way to the giver. But the phrase, "this is this one's," can be understood in several senses. In one way it means identity, as Augustine says (In Joan. Tract. xxix); and in that sense "gift" is the same as "the giver," but not the same as the one to whom it is given. The Holy Ghost gives Himself in that sense. In another sense, a thing is another's as a possession, or as a slave; and in that sense gift is essentially distinct from the giver; and the gift of God so taken is a created thing. In a third sense "this is this one's" through its origin only; and in this sense the Son is the Father's; and the Holy Ghost belongs to both. Therefore, so far as gift in this way signifies the possession of the giver, it is personally distinguished from the giver, and is a personal name.
Ad secundum dicendum quod essentia dicitur esse donum patris primo modo, quia essentia est patris per modum identitatis.   Reply to Objection 2: The divine essence is the Father's gift in the first sense, as being the Father's by way of identity.
Ad tertium dicendum quod donum, secundum quod est nomen personale in divinis, non importat subiectionem, sed originem tantum, in comparatione ad dantem. In comparatione vero ad eum cui datur, importat liberum usum vel fruitionem, ut dictum est   Reply to Objection 3: Gift as a personal name in God does not imply subjection, but only origin, as regards the giver; but as regards the one to whom it is given, it implies a free use, or enjoyment, as above explained.
Ad quartum dicendum quod donum non dicitur ex eo quod actu datur, sed inquantum habet aptitudinem ut possit dari. Unde ab aeterno divina persona dicitur donum, licet ex tempore detur. Nec tamen per hoc quod importatur respectus ad creaturam, oportet quod sit essentiale, sed quod aliquid essentiale in suo intellectu includatur, sicut essentia includitur in intellectu personae, ut supra dictum est.   Reply to Objection 4: Gift is not so called from being actually given, but from its aptitude to be given. Hence the divine person is called Gift from eternity, although He is given in time. Nor does it follow that it is an essential name because it imports relation to the creature; but that it includes something essential in its meaning; as the essence is included in the idea of person, as stated above (Question [34], Article [3]).


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Question: 38  [<< | >>]
Article: 2  [<< | >>]

Whether "Gift" is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?

Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod donum non sit proprium nomen spiritus sancti. Donum enim dicitur ex eo quod datur. Sed, sicut dicitur Isa. IX, filius datus est nobis. Ergo esse donum convenit filio, sicut spiritui sancto.   Objection 1: It would seem that Gift is not the proper name of the Holy Ghost. For the name Gift comes from being given. But, as Is. 9:16 says: "A Son is give to us." Therefore to be Gift belongs to the Son, as well as to the Holy Ghost.
Praeterea, omne nomen proprium alicuius personae significat aliquam eius proprietatem. Sed hoc nomen donum non significat proprietatem aliquam spiritus sancti. Ergo donum non est proprium nomen spiritus sancti.   Objection 2: Further, every proper name of a person signifies a property. But this word Gift does not signify a property of the Holy Ghost. Therefore Gift is not a proper name of the Holy Ghost.
Praeterea, spiritus sanctus potest dici spiritus alicuius hominis, ut supra dictum est. Sed non potest dici donum alicuius hominis, sed solum donum Dei. Ergo donum non est proprium nomen spiritus sancti.   Objection 3: Further, the Holy Ghost can be called the spirit of a man, whereas He cannot be called the gift of any man, but "God's Gift" only. Therefore Gift is not the proper name of the Holy Ghost.
Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in IV de Trin., sicut natum esse est filio a patre esse, ita spiritui sancto donum Dei esse est a patre et filio procedere. Sed spiritus sanctus sortitur proprium nomen inquantum procedit a patre et filio. Ergo et donum est proprium nomen spiritus sancti.   On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20): "As 'to be born' is, for the Son, to be from the Father, so, for the Holy Ghost, 'to be the Gift of God' is to proceed from Father and Son." But the Holy Ghost receives His proper name from the fact that He proceeds from Father and Son. Therefore Gift is the proper name of the Holy Ghost.
Respondeo dicendum quod donum, secundum quod personaliter sumitur in divinis, est proprium nomen spiritus sancti.   I answer that, Gift, taken personally in God, is the proper name of the Holy Ghost.
Ad cuius evidentiam, sciendum est quod donum proprie est datio irreddibilis, secundum philosophum, idest quod non datur intentione retributionis, et sic importat gratuitam donationem. Ratio autem gratuitae donationis est amor, ideo enim damus gratis alicui aliquid, quia volumus ei bonum. Primum ergo quod damus ei, est amor quo volumus ei bonum. Unde manifestum est quod amor habet rationem primi doni, per quod omnia dona gratuita donantur. Unde, cum spiritus sanctus procedat ut amor, sicut iam dictum est, procedit in ratione doni primi. Unde dicit Augustinus, XV de Trin., quod per donum quod est spiritus sanctus, multa propria dona dividuntur membris Christi.    In proof of this we must know that a gift is properly an unreturnable giving, as Aristotle says (Topic. iv, 4)—i.e. a thing which is not given with the intention of a return—and it thus contains the idea of a gratuitous donation. Now, the reason of donation being gratuitous is love; since therefore do we give something to anyone gratuitously forasmuch as we wish him well. So what we first give him is the love whereby we wish him well. Hence it is manifest that love has the nature of a first gift, through which all free gifts are given. So since the Holy Ghost proceeds as love, as stated above (Question [27], Article [4]; Question [37], Article [1]), He proceeds as the first gift. Hence Augustine says (De Trin. xv, 24): "By the gift, which is the Holy Ghost, many particular gifts are portioned out to the members of Christ."
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut filius, quia procedit per modum verbi, quod de ratione sua habet quod sit similitudo sui principii dicitur proprie imago, licet etiam spiritus sanctus sit similis patri; ita etiam spiritus sanctus, quia a patre procedit ut amor, dicitur proprie donum, licet etiam filius detur. Hoc enim ipsum quod filius datur, est ex patris amore, secundum illud Ioan. III, sic Deus dilexit mundum, ut filium suum unigenitum daret.   Reply to Objection 1: As the Son is properly called the Image because He proceeds by way of a word, whose nature it is to be the similitude of its principle, although the Holy Ghost also is like to the Father; so also, because the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father as love, He is properly called Gift, although the Son, too, is given. For that the Son is given is from the Father's love, according to the words, "God so loved the world, as to give His only begotten Son" (Jn. 3:16).
Ad secundum dicendum quod in nomine doni importatur quod sit dantis per originem. Et sic importatur proprietas originis spiritus sancti, quae est processio.   Reply to Objection 2: The name Gift involves the idea of belonging to the Giver through its origin; and thus it imports the property of the origin of the Holy Ghost—that is, His procession.
Ad tertium dicendum quod donum, antequam detur, est tantum dantis, sed postquam datur, est eius cui datur. Quia igitur donum non importat dationem in actu, non potest dici quod sit donum hominis; sed donum Dei dantis. Cum autem iam datum est, tunc hominis est vel spiritus vel datum.   Reply to Objection 3: Before a gift is given, it belongs only to the giver; but when it is given, it is his to whom it is given. Therefore, because "Gift" does not import the actual giving, it cannot be called a gift of man, but the Gift of God giving. When, however, it has been given, then it is the spirit of man, or a gift bestowed on man.

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