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|Deinde considerandum est de descensu Christi ad Inferos. Et circa hoc quaeruntur octo.
|We have now to consider Christ's descent into hell; concerning which there are eight points of inquiry:
|Primo, utrum conveniens fuerit Christum ad Inferos descendere.
|(1) Whether it was fitting for Christ to descend into hell?
|Secundo, in quem Infernum descenderit.
|(2) Into which hell did He descend?
|Tertio, utrum totus fuerit in Inferno.
|(3) Whether He was entirely in hell?
|Quarto, utrum aliquam moram ibi contraxerit.
|(4) Whether He made any stay there?
|Quinto, utrum sanctos patres ab Inferno liberaverit.
|(5) Whether He delivered the Holy Fathers from hell?
|Sexto, utrum ab Inferno liberaverit damnatos.
|(6) Whether He delivered the lost from hell?
|Septimo, utrum liberaverit pueros in peccato originali defunctos.
|(7) Whether He delivered the children who died in original sin?
|Octavo, utrum liberaverit homines de Purgatorio.
|(8) Whether He delivered men from Purgatory?
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|Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod non fuerit conveniens Christum ad Infernum descendere. Dicit enim Augustinus, in epistola ad Evodium, nec ipsos quidem Inferos uspiam Scripturarum in bono appellatos potui reperire. Sed anima Christi non descendit ad aliquod malum, quia nec animae iustorum ad aliquod malum descendunt. Ergo videtur quod non fuerit conveniens Christum ad Inferos descendere.
|Objection 1: It would seem that it was not fitting for Christ to descend into hell, because Augustine says (Ep. ad Evod. cliv.): "Nor could I find anywhere in the Scriptures hell mentioned as something good." But Christ's soul did not descend into any evil place, for neither do the souls of the just. Therefore it does not seem fitting for Christ's soul to descend into hell.
|Praeterea, descendere ad Inferos non potest Christo convenire secundum divinam naturam, quae est omnino immobilis, sed solum convenire potest ei secundum naturam assumptam. Ea vero quae Christus fecit vel passus est in natura assumpta, ordinantur ad humanam salutem. Ad quam non videtur necessarium fuisse quod Christus descenderit ad Inferos, quia per passionem suam, quam in hoc mundo sustinuit, nos liberavit a culpa et poena, ut supra dictum est. Non igitur fuit conveniens quod Christus ad Infernum descenderet.
Objection 2: Further, it cannot belong to Christ to descend into hell according to His Divine Nature, which is altogether immovable; but only according to His assumed nature. But that which Christ did or suffered in His assumed nature is ordained for man's salvation: and to secure this it does not seem necessary for Christ to descend into hell, since He delivered us from both guilt and penalty by His Passion which He endured in this world, as stated above (Question , Articles ,3). Consequently, it was not fitting that Christ should descend into hell.
|Praeterea, per mortem Christi separata est anima a corpore eius, quod quidem positum fuerat in sepulcro, ut supra habitum est. Non videtur autem quod secundum animam solam ad Infernum descenderit, quia anima, cum sit incorporea, non videtur quod localiter possit moveri; hoc enim est corporum, ut probatur in VI Physic.; descensus autem motum corporalem importat. Non ergo fuit conveniens quod Christus ad Infernum descenderet.
Objection 3: Further, by Christ's death His soul was separated from His body, and this was laid in the sepulchre, as stated above (Question ). But it seems that He descended into hell, not according to His soul only, because seemingly the soul, being incorporeal, cannot be a subject of local motion; for this belongs to bodies, as is proved in Phys. vi, text. 32; while descent implies corporeal motion. Therefore it was not fitting for Christ to descend into hell.
|Sed contra est quod dicitur in symbolo, descendit ad Inferos. Et apostolus dicit, Ephes. IV, quod autem ascendit, quid est nisi quia descendit primum ad inferiores partes terrae? Glossa, idest ad Inferos.
On the contrary, It is said in the Creed: "He descended into hell": and the Apostle says (Eph. 4:9): "Now that He ascended, what is it, but because He also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?" And a gloss adds: "that is---into hell."
|Respondeo dicendum quod conveniens fuit Christum ad Infernum descendere. Primo quidem, quia ipse venerat poenam nostram portare, ut nos a poena eriperet, secundum illud Isaiae LIII, vere languores nostros ipse tulit, et dolores nostros ipse portavit. Ex peccato autem homo incurrerat non solum mortem corporis, sed etiam descensum ad Inferos. Et ideo, sicut fuit conveniens eum mori ut nos liberaret a morte, ita conveniens fuit eum descendere ad Inferos ut nos a descensu ad Inferos liberaret. Unde dicitur Osee XIII, ero mors tua, o mors. Ero morsus tuus, Inferne. Secundo, quia conveniens erat ut, victo Diabolo per passionem, vinctos eius eriperet, qui detinebantur in Inferno, secundum illud Zach. IX, tu quoque in sanguine testamenti tui vinctos tuos emisisti de lacu. Et Coloss. II dicitur, exspolians principatus et potestates, traduxit confidenter. Tertio ut, sicut potestatem suam ostendit in terra vivendo et moriendo, ita etiam potestatem suam ostenderet in Inferno, ipsum visitando et illuminando; unde dicitur in Psalmo, attollite portas, principes, vestras, Glossa, idest, principes Inferni, auferte potestatem vestram, qua usque nunc homines in Inferno detinebatis; et sic in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur, non solum caelestium, sed etiam Infernorum, ut dicitur Philipp. II.
I answer that It was fitting for Christ to descend into hell. First of all, because He came to bear our penalty in order to free us from penalty, according to Is. 53:4: "Surely He hath borne our infirmities and carried our sorrows." But through sin man had incurred not only the death of the body, but also descent into hell. Consequently since it was fitting for Christ to die in order to deliver us from death, so it was fitting for Him to descend into hell in order to deliver us also from going down into hell. Hence it is written (Osee 13:14): "O death, I will be thy death; O hell, I will be thy bite." Secondly, because it was fitting when the devil was overthrown by the Passion that Christ should deliver the captives detained in hell, according to Zach. 9:11: "Thou also by the blood of Thy Testament hast sent forth Thy prisoners out of the pit." And it is written (Col. 2:15): "Despoiling the principalities and powers, He hath exposed them confidently." Thirdly, that as He showed forth His power on earth by living and dying, so also He might manifest it in hell, by visiting it and enlightening it. Accordingly it is written (Ps. 23:7): "Lift up your gates, O ye princes," which the gloss thus interprets: "that is---Ye princes of hell, take away your power, whereby hitherto you held men fast in hell"; and so "at the name of Jesus every knee should bow," not only "of them that are in heaven," but likewise "of them that are in hell," as is said in Phil. 2:10.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod nomen Infernorum sonat in malum poenae, non autem in malum culpae. Unde decuit Christum in Infernum descendere, non tanquam ipse esset debitor poena, sed ut eos qui erant poenae obnoxii, liberaret.
|Reply to Objection 1: The name of hell stands for an evil of penalty, and not for an evil of guilt. Hence it was becoming that Christ should descend into hell, not as liable to punishment Himself, but to deliver them who were.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod passio Christi fuit quaedam causa universalis humanae salutis, tam vivorum quam mortuorum. Causa autem universalis applicatur ad singulares effectus per aliquid speciale. Unde, sicut virtus passionis Christi applicatur viventibus per sacramenta configurantia nos passioni Christi, ita etiam applicata est mortuis per descensum Christi ad Inferos. Propter quod signanter dicitur Zach. IX, quod eduxit vinctos de lacu in sanguine testamenti sui, idest per virtutem passionis suae.
|Reply to Objection 2: Christ's Passion was a kind of universal cause of men's salvation, both of the living and of the dead. But a general cause is applied to particular effects by means of something special. Hence, as the power of the Passion is applied to the living through the sacraments which make us like unto Christ's Passion, so likewise it is applied to the dead through His descent into hell. On which account it is written (Zach. 9:11) that "He sent forth prisoners out of the pit, in the blood of His testament," that is, by the power of His Passion.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod anima Christi non descenderit ad Inferos eo genere motus quo corpora moventur, sed eo genere motus quo Angeli moventur, sicut in prima parte habitum est.
|Reply to Objection 3: Christ's soul descended into hell not by the same kind of motion as that whereby bodies are moved, but by that kind whereby the angels are moved, as was said in the FP, Question , Article .
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|Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus descenderit etiam ad Infernum damnatorum. Dicitur enim ex ore divinae sapientiae, Eccli. XXIV, penetrabo omnes inferiores partes terrae. Sed inter partes inferiores terrae computatur etiam Infernus damnatorum, secundum illud Psalmi, introibunt in inferiora terrae. Ergo Christus, qui est Dei sapientia, etiam usque ad Infernum damnatorum descendit.
|Objection 1: It would seem that Christ went down into the hell of the lost, because it is said by the mouth of Divine Wisdom (Ecclus. 24:45): "I will penetrate to all the lower parts of the earth." But the hell of the lost is computed among the lower parts of the earth according to Ps. 62:10: "They shall go into the lower parts of the earth." Therefore Christ who is the Wisdom of God, went down even into the hell of the lost.
|Praeterea, Act. II dicit Petrus quod Deus Christum suscitavit, solutis doloribus Inferni, iuxta quod impossibile erat teneri illum ab eo. Sed dolores non sunt in Inferno patrum, neque etiam in Inferno puerorum, qui non puniuntur poena sensus propter peccatum actuale, sed solum poena damni propter peccatum originale. Ergo Christus descendit in Infernum damnatorum, vel etiam in Purgatorium, ubi homines puniuntur poena sensus pro peccatis actualibus.
Objection 2: Further, Peter says (Acts 2:24) that "God hath raised up Christ, having loosed the sorrows of hell, as it was impossible that He should be holden by it." But there are no sorrows in the hell of the Fathers, nor in the hell of the children, since they are not punished with sensible pain on account of any actual sin, but only with the pain of loss on account of original sin. Therefore Christ went down into the hell of the lost, or else into Purgatory, where men are tormented with sensible pain on account of actual sins.
|Praeterea, I Pet. III dicitur quod Christus his qui in carcere conclusi erant, spiritu veniens praedicavit, qui increduli fuerant aliquando, quod, sicut Athanasius dicit, in epistola ad Epictetum, intelligitur de descensu Christi ad Inferos. Dicit enim quod corpus Christi fuit in sepulcro positum, quando ipse perrexit praedicare his qui in custodia erant spiritibus, sicut dixit Petrus. Constat autem quod increduli erant in Inferno damnatorum. Ergo Christus ad Infernum damnatorum descendit.
Objection 3: Further, it is written (1 Pt. 3:19) that "Christ coming in spirit preached to those spirits that were in prison, which had some time been incredulous": and this is understood of Christ's descent into hell, as Athanasius says (Ep. ad Epict.). For he says that "Christ's body was laid in the sepulchre when He went to preach to those spirits who were in bondage, as Peter said." But it is clear the unbelievers were in the hell of the lost. Therefore Christ went down into the hell of the lost.
|Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in epistola ad Evodium, si in illum Abrahae sinum Christum mortuum venisse sacra Scriptura dixisset non nominato Inferno eiusque doloribus, miror si quisquam eum ad Inferos descendisse asserere auderet. Sed quia evidentia testimonia et Infernum commemorant et dolores, nulla causa occurrit cur illo credatur venisse salvator, nisi ut ab eisdem doloribus salvos faceret. Sed locus dolorum est Infernus damnatorum. Ergo Christus in Infernum damnatorum descendit.
|Objection 4: Further, Augustine says (Ep. ad Evod. clxiv): "If the sacred Scriptures had said that Christ came into Abraham's bosom, without naming hell or its woes, I wonder whether any person would dare to assert that He descended into hell. But since evident testimonies mention hell and its sorrows, there is no reason for believing that Christ went there except to deliver men from the same woes." But the place of woes is the hell of the lost. Therefore Christ descended into the hell of the lost.
|Praeterea, sicut Augustinus dicit, in quodam sermone de passione, Christus ad Infernum descendens omnes iustos qui originali peccato adstricti tenebantur, absolvit. Sed inter illos erat etiam Iob, qui de seipso dicit, Iob XVII, in profundissima Inferni descendent omnia mea. Ergo Christus etiam usque ad profundissimum Inferni descendit.
Objection 5: Further, as Augustine says in a sermon upon the Resurrection: Christ descending into hell "set free all the just who were held in the bonds of original sin." But among them was Job, who says of himself (Job 17:16): "All that I have shall go down into the deepest pit." Therefore Christ descended into the deepest pit.
|Sed contra est quod de Inferno damnatorum dicitur, Iob X, antequam vadam, et non revertar, ad terram tenebrosam et opertam mortis caligine, et cetera. Nulla autem est conventio lucis ad tenebras, ut dicitur II Cor. VI. Ergo Christus, qui est lux, ad illum Infernum damnatorum non descendit.
On the contrary, Regarding the hell of the lost it is written (Job 10:21): "Before I go, and return no more, to a land that is dark and covered with the mist of death." Now there is no "fellowship of light with darkness," according to 2 Cor. 6:14. Therefore Christ, who is "the light," did not descend into the hell of the lost.
|Respondeo dicendum quod dupliciter dicitur aliquid alicubi esse. Uno modo, per suum effectum. Et hoc modo Christus in quemlibet Infernum descendit, aliter tamen et aliter. Nam in Infernum damnatorum habuit hunc effectum quod, descendens ad Inferos, eos de sua incredulitate et malitia confutavit. Illis vero qui detinebantur in Purgatorio, spem gloriae consequendae dedit. Sanctis autem patribus, qui pro solo peccato originali detinebantur in Inferno, lumen aeternae gloriae infudit.
|I answer that, A thing is said to be in a place in two ways. First of all, through its effect, and in this way Christ descended into each of the hells, but in different manner. For going down into the hell of the lost He wrought this effect, that by descending thither He put them to shame for their unbelief and wickedness: but to them who were detained in Purgatory He gave hope of attaining to glory: while upon the holy Fathers detained in hell solely on account of original sin, He shed the light of glory everlasting.
|Alio modo dicitur aliquid esse alicubi per suam essentiam. Et hoc modo anima Christi descendit solum ad locum Inferni in quo iusti detinebantur, ut quos ipse per gratiam interius visitabat secundum divinitatem, eos etiam secundum animam visitaret et loco. Sic autem in una parte Inferni existens, effectum suum aliqualiter ad omnes Inferni partes derivavit, sicut, in uno loco terrae passus, totum mundum sua passione liberavit.
|In another way a thing is said to be in a place through its essence: and in this way Christ's soul descended only into that part of hell wherein the just were detained. so that He visited them "in place," according to His soul, whom He visited "interiorly by grace," according to His Godhead. Accordingly, while remaining in one part of hell, He wrought this effect in a measure in every part of hell, just as while suffering in one part of the earth He delivered the whole world by His Passion.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Christus, qui est Dei sapientia, penetravit omnes inferiores partes terrae, non localiter, secundum animam omnes circumeundo; sed effectum suae potentiae aliqualiter ad omnes extendendo. Ita tamen quod solos iustos illuminavit, sequitur enim, et illuminabo omnes sperantes in domino.
|Reply to Objection 1: Christ, who is the Wisdom of God, penetrated to all the lower parts of the earth, not passing through them locally with His soul, but by spreading the effects of His power in a measure to them all: yet so that He enlightened only the just: because the text quoted continues: "And I will enlighten all that hope in the Lord."
|Ad secundum dicendum quod duplex est dolor. Unus de passione poenae, quam patiuntur homines pro peccato actuali, secundum illud Psalmi, dolores Inferni circumdederunt me. Alius autem dolor est de dilatione speratae gloriae, secundum illud Proverb. XIII, spes quae differtur, affligit animam. Quem quidem dolorem etiam patiebantur sancti patres in Inferno. Ad quod significandum Augustinus, in sermone de passione, dicit quod lacrymabili obsecratione Christum orabant. Utrosque autem dolores Christus solvit ad Infernum descendens, aliter tamen et aliter. Nam dolores poenarum solvit praeservando ab eis, sicut medicus dicitur solvere morbum a quo praeservat per medicinam. Dolores autem causatos ex dilatione gloriae actualiter solvit, gloriam praebendo.
|Reply to Objection 2: Sorrow is twofold: one is the suffering of pain which men endure for actual sin, according to Ps. 17:6: "The sorrows of hell encompassed me." Another sorrow comes of hoped-for glory being deferred, according to Prov. 13:12: "Hope that is deferred afflicteth the soul": and such was the sorrow which the holy Fathers suffered in hell, and Augustine refers to it in a sermon on the Passion, saying that "they besought Christ with tearful entreaty." Now by descending into hell Christ took away both sorrows, yet in different ways: for He did away with the sorrows of pains by preserving souls from them, just as a physician is said to free a man from sickness by warding it off by means of physic. Likewise He removed the sorrows caused by glory deferred, by bestowing glory.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod illud quod ibi dicit Petrus, a quibusdam refertur ad descensum Christi ad Inferos, sic exponentes verbum illud, his qui in carcere conclusi erant, idest in Inferno, spiritu, idest secundum animam, Christus veniens praedicavit, qui increduli fuerant aliquando. Unde et Damascenus dicit, in III libro, quod, sicut his qui in terra sunt evangelizavit, ita et his qui in Inferno, non quidem ut incredulos ad fidem converteret, sed ut eorum infidelitatem confutaret. Quia et ipsa praedicatio nihil aliud intelligi potest quam manifestatio divinitatis eius, quae manifestata est infernalibus per virtuosum descensum Christi ad Inferos.
|Reply to Objection 3: These words of Peter are referred by some to Christ's descent into hell: and they explain it in this sense: "Christ preached to them who formerly were unbelievers, and who were shut up in prison"---that is, in hell---"in spirit"---that is, by His soul. Hence Damascene says (De Fide Orth. iii): "As He evangelized them who are upon the earth, so did He those who were in hell"; not in order to convert unbelievers unto belief, but to put them to shame for their unbelief, since preaching cannot be understood otherwise than as the open manifesting of His Godhead. which was laid bare before them in the lower regions by His descending in power into hell.
|Augustinus tamen melius exponit, in epistola ad Evodium, ut referatur, non ad descensum Christi ad Inferos, sed ad operationem divinitatis eius, quam exercuit a principio mundi. Ut sit sensus quod his qui in carcere conclusi erant, viventes scilicet in corpore mortali, quod est quasi quidam carcer animae, spiritu suae divinitatis veniens praedicavit, per internas inspirationes, et etiam exteriores admonitiones per ora iustorum, his, inquam, praedicavit qui increduli fuerant aliquando, Noe scilicet praedicanti, quando expectabant Dei patientiam, per quam differebatur poena diluvii. Unde subdit, in diebus Noe, cum fabricaretur arca.
|Augustine, however, furnishes a better exposition of the text in his Epistle to Evodius quoted above, namely, that the preaching is not to be referred to Christ's descent into hell, but to the operation of His Godhead, to which He gave effect from the beginning of the world. Consequently, the sense is, that "to those (spirits) that were in prison"---that is, living in the mortal body, which is, as it were, the soul's prison-house---"by the spirit" of His Godhead "He came and preached" by internal inspirations, and from without by the admonitions spoken by the righteous: to those, I say, He preached "which had been some time incredulous," i.e. not believing in the preaching of Noe, "when they waited for the patience of God," whereby the chastisement of the Deluge was put off: accordingly (Peter) adds: "In the days of Noe, when the Ark was being built."
|Ad quartum dicendum quod sinus Abrahae potest secundum duo considerari. Uno modo, secundum quietem quae ibi erat a poena sensibili. Et quantum ad hoc non competit ei nec nomen Inferni, nec sunt ibi aliqui dolores. Alio modo potest considerari quantum ad privationem gloriae speratae. Et secundum hoc habet rationem Inferni et doloris. Et ideo nunc dicitur sinus Abrahae illa requies beatorum, non tamen dicitur Infernus, nec dicuntur nunc in sinu Abrahae esse dolores.
|Reply to Objection 4: The expression "Abraham's bosom" may be taken in two senses. First of all, as implying that restfulness, existing there, from sensible pain; so that in this sense it cannot be called hell, nor are there any sorrows there. In another way it can be taken as implying the privation of longed-for glory: in this sense it has the character of hell and sorrow. Consequently, that rest of the blessed is now called Abraham's bosom, yet it is not styled hell, nor are sorrows said to be now in Abraham's bosom.
|Ad quintum dicendum quod, sicut Gregorius ibidem dicit, ipsa superiora loca Inferni profundissimum Infernum vocat. Si enim, quantum ad celsitudinem caeli, aer iste caliginosus Infernus est; quantum ad eiusdem aeris altitudinem, terra, quae inferius iacet, et Infernus intelligi, et profundum potest. Quantum vero ad eiusdem terrae altitudinem, illa loca Inferni quae superiora sunt aliis receptaculis Inferni, hoc modo Inferni profundissimi appellatione significantur.
|Reply to Objection 5: As Gregory says (Moral. xiii): "Even the higher regions of hell he calls the deepest hell... For if relatively to the height of heaven this darksome air is infernal, then relatively to the height of this same air the earth lying beneath can be considered as infernal and deep. And again in comparison with the height of the same earth, those parts of hell which are higher than the other infernal mansions, may in this way be designated as the deepest hell."
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|Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus non fuit totus in Inferno. Corpus enim Christi est aliqua pars eius. Sed corpus Christi non fuit in Inferno. Ergo totus Christus non fuit in Inferno.
|Objection 1: It would seem that the whole Christ was not in hell. For Christ's body is one of His parts. But His body was not in hell. Therefore, the whole Christ was not in hell.
|Praeterea, nihil cuius partes ab invicem separatae sunt, potest dici totum. Sed corpus et anima, quae sunt partes humanae naturae, fuerunt ab invicem separata post mortem, ut supra dictum est. Descendit autem ad Infernum mortuus existens. Non ergo potuit esse totus in Inferno.
Objection 2: Further, nothing can be termed whole when its parts are severed. But the soul and body, which are the parts of human nature, were separated at His death, as stated above (Question , Articles ,4), and it was after death that He descended into hell. Therefore the whole (Christ) could not be in hell.
|Praeterea, illud totum dicitur esse in loco cuius nihil est extra locum illum. Sed aliquid Christi erat extra Infernum, quia et corpus erat in sepulcro, et divinitas ubique. Ergo Christus non fuit totus in Inferno.
|Objection 3: Further, the whole of a thing is said to be in a place when no part of it is outside such place. But there were parts of Christ outside hell; for instance, His body was in the grave, and His Godhead everywhere. Therefore the whole Christ was not in hell.
|Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in libro de symbolo, totus filius apud patrem, totus in caelo, totus in terra, totus in utero virginis, totus in cruce, totus in Inferno, totus in Paradiso quo latronem introduxit.
|On the contrary, Augustine says (De Symbolo iii): "The whole Son is with the Father, the whole Son in heaven, on earth, in the Virgin's womb, on the Cross, in hell, in paradise, into which He brought the robber."
|Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut patet ex his quae in prima parte dicta sunt, masculinum genus refertur ad hypostasim vel personam, neutrum autem genus pertinet ad naturam. In morte autem Christi, licet anima fuerit separata a corpore, neutrum tamen fuit separatum a persona filii Dei, ut supra dictum est. Et ideo, in illo triduo mortis Christi, dicendum est quod totus Christus fuit in sepulcro, quia tota persona fuit ibi per corpus sibi unitum; et similiter totus fuit in Inferno, quia tota persona Christi fuit ibi ratione animae sibi unitae; totus etiam Christus tunc erat ubique, ratione divinae naturae.
I answer that, It is evident from what was said in the FP, Question , Article , ad 4, the masculine gender is referred to the hypostasis or person, while the neuter belongs to the nature. Now in the death of Christ, although the soul was separated from the body, yet neither was separated from the Person of the Son of God, as stated above (Question , Article ). Consequently, it must be affirmed that during the three days of Christ's death the whole Christ was in the tomb, because the whole Person was there through the body united with Him, and likewise He was entirely in hell, because the whole Person of Christ was there by reason of the soul united with Him, and the whole Christ was then everywhere by reason of the Divine Nature.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod corpus quod tunc erat in sepulcro, non est pars personae increatae, sed naturae assumptae. Et ideo per hoc quod corpus Christi non fuit in Inferno, non excluditur quin totus Christus fuerit, sed ostenditur quod non fuit ibi totum quod pertinet ad humanam naturam.
|Reply to Objection 1: The body which was then in the grave is not a part of the uncreated Person, but of the assumed nature. Consequently, the fact of Christ's body not being in hell does not prevent the whole Christ from being there: but proves that not everything appertaining to human nature was there.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod ex anima et corpore unitis constituitur totalitas humanae naturae, non autem totalitas divinae personae. Et ideo, soluta unione animae et corporis per mortem, remansit totus Christus, sed non remansit humana natura in sua totalitate.
|Reply to Objection 2: The whole human nature is made up of the united soul and body; not so the Divine Person. Consequently when death severed the union of the soul with the body, the whole Christ remained, but His whole human nature did not remain.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod persona Christi est tota in quolibet loco, sed non totaliter, quia nullo loco circumscribitur. Sed nec omnia loca simul accepta eius immensitatem comprehendere possunt. Quinimmo ipse sua immensitate omnia comprehendit. Hoc autem locum habet in his quae corporaliter et circumscriptive sunt in loco, quod, si totum sit alicubi, nihil eius sit extra. Sed hoc in Deo locum non habet. Unde Augustinus dicit, in sermone de symbolo, non per diversa tempora vel loca dicimus ubique Christum esse totum, ut modo ibi totus sit, et alio tempore alibi totus, sed ut semper ubique sit totus.
|Reply to Objection 3: Christ's Person is whole in each single place, but not wholly, because it is not circumscribed by any place: indeed, all places put together could not comprise His immensity; rather is it His immensity that embraces all things. But it happens in those things which are in a place corporeally and circumscriptively, that if a whole be in some place, then no part of it is outside that place. But this is not the case with God. Hence Augustine says (De Symbolo iii): "It is not according to times or places that we say that the whole Christ is everywhere, as if He were at one time whole in one place, at another time whole in another: but as being whole always and everywhere."
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|Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus nullam moram contraxit in Inferno. Christus enim ad hoc in Infernum descendit ut ex eo homines liberaret. Sed hoc statim ab eo factum est in ipso suo descensu, facile enim est in conspectu Dei subito honestare pauperem, ut dicitur Eccli. XI. Ergo videtur quod nullam moram in Inferno contraxit.
|Objection 1: It would seem that Christ did not make any stay in hell. For Christ went down into hell to deliver men from thence. But He accomplished this deliverance at once by His descent, for, according to Ecclus. 11:23: "It is easy in the eyes of God on a sudden to make the poor man rich." Consequently He does not seem to have tarried in hell.
|Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in sermone de passione, quod sine aliqua mora, ad imperium domini ac salvatoris, omnes ferrei confracti sunt vectes. Unde ex persona Angelorum concomitantium Christum dicitur, tollite portas, principes, vestras. Ad hoc autem Christus illuc descendit ut vectes Inferni confringeret. Ergo Christus in Inferno nullam moram contraxit.
Objection 2: Further, Augustine says in a sermon on the Passion (clx) that "of a sudden at our Lord and Saviour's bidding all 'the bars of iron were burst'" (Cf. Is. 45:2). Hence on behalf of the angels accompanying Christ it is written (Ps. 23:7,9): "Lift up your gates, O ye princes." Now Christ descended thither in order to break the bolts of hell. Therefore He did not make any stay in hell.
|Praeterea, Luc. XXIII dicitur quod dominus, in cruce pendens, dixit latroni, hodie mecum eris in Paradiso, ex quo patet quod eadem die Christus fuit in Paradiso. Non autem secundum corpus, quod positum fuit in sepulcro. Ergo secundum animam, quae ad Infernum descenderat. Et ita videtur quod non contraxit moram in Inferno.
Objection 3: Further, it is related (Lk. 23:43) that our Lord while hanging on the cross said to the thief: "This day thou shalt be with Me in paradise": from which it is evident that Christ was in paradise on that very day. But He was not there with His body. for that was in the grave. Therefore He was there with the soul which had gone down into hell: and consequently it appears that He made no stay in hell.
|Sed contra est quod Petrus dicit, Act. II, quem Deus suscitavit, solutis doloribus Inferni, iuxta quod impossibile erat teneri illum ab eo. Ergo videtur quod usque ad horam resurrectionis mansit in Inferno.
On the contrary, Peter says (Acts 2:24): "Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the sorrows of hell, as it was impossible that He should be held by it." Therefore it seems that He remained in hell until the hour of the Resurrection.
|Respondeo dicendum quod sicut Christus, ut nostras poenas in se susciperet, voluit corpus suum in sepulcro poni, ita etiam voluit animam suam ad Infernum descendere. Corpus autem eius mansit in sepulcro per diem integrum et duas noctes ad comprobandum veritatem mortis suae. Unde etiam tantundem credendum est animam eius fuisse in Inferno, ut simul anima eius educeretur de Inferno, et corpus de sepulcro.
|I answer that, As Christ, in order to take our penalties upon Himself, willed His body to be laid in the tomb, so likewise He willed His soul to descend into hell. But the body lay in the tomb for a day and two nights, so as to demonstrate the truth of His death. Consequently, it is to be believed that His soul was in hell, in order that it might be brought back out of hell simultaneously with His body from the tomb.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Christus, ad Infernum descendens, sanctos ibi existentes liberavit, non quidem statim educendo eos de loco Inferni, sed in ipso Inferno eos luce gloriae illustrando. Et tamen conveniens fuit ut tandiu anima eius remaneret in Inferno quandiu corpus manebat in sepulcro.
|Reply to Objection 1: When Christ descended into hell He delivered the saints who were there, not by leading them out at once from the confines of hell, but by enlightening them with the light of glory in hell itself. Nevertheless it was fitting that His soul should abide in hell as long as His body remained in the tomb.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod vectes Inferni dicuntur impedimenta quibus sancti patres de Inferno exire prohibebantur, reatu culpae primi parentis. Quos Christus statim descendens ad Inferos, virtute suae passionis et mortis confregit. Et tamen voluit in Inferno aliquandiu remanere, propter rationem praedictam.
|Reply to Objection 2: By the expression "bars of hell" are understood the obstacles which kept the holy Fathers from quitting hell, through the guilt of our first parent's sin; and these bars Christ burst asunder by the power of His Passion on descending into hell: nevertheless He chose to remain in hell for some time, for the reason stated above.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod illud verbum domini est intelligendum, non de Paradiso terrestri corporeo, sed de Paradiso spirituali, in quo esse dicuntur quicumque divina gloria perfruuntur. Unde latro loco quidem cum Christo ad Infernum descendit, ut cum Christo esset, quia dictum est ei, mecum eris in Paradiso, sed praemio in Paradiso fuit, quia ibi divinitate Christi fruebatur, sicut et alii sancti.
|Reply to Objection 3: Our Lord's expression is not to be understood of the earthly corporeal paradise, but of a spiritual one, in which all are said to be who enjoy the Divine glory. Accordingly, the thief descended locally into hell with Christ, because it was said to him: "This day thou shalt be with Me in paradise"; still as to reward he was in paradise, because he enjoyed Christ's Godhead just as the other saints did.
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|Ad quintum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus, descendens ad Inferos, sanctos patres inde non liberaverit. Dicit enim Augustinus, in epistola ad Evodium, illis iustis qui in sinu erant Abrahae cum Christus in Inferna descenderet, nondum quid contulisset inveni, a quibus eum, secundum beatificam praesentiam suae divinitatis, nunquam video recessisse. Multum autem eis contulisset si eos ab Inferis liberasset. Non ergo videtur quod Christus sanctos patres ab Inferis liberaverit.
|Objection 1: It would seem that Christ descending into hell did not deliver the holy Fathers from thence. For Augustine (Epist. ad Evod. clxiv) says: "I have not yet discovered what Christ descending into hell bestowed upon those righteous ones who were in Abraham's bosom, from whom I fail to see that He ever departed according to the beatific presence of His Godhead." But had He delivered them, He would have bestowed much upon them. Therefore it does not appear that Christ delivered the holy Fathers from hell.
|Praeterea, nullus in Inferno detinetur nisi propter peccatum. Sed sancti patres, dum adhuc viverent, per fidem Christi iustificati fuerant a peccato. Ergo non indigebant liberari ab Inferno, ad Inferos Christo descendente.
|Objection 2: Further, no one is detained in hell except on account of sin. But during life the holy Fathers were justified from sin through faith in Christ. Consequently they did not need to be delivered from hell on Christ's descent thither.
|Praeterea, remota causa, removetur effectus. Sed causa descendendi ad Inferos est peccatum, quod fuit remotum per passionem Christi, ut supra dictum est. Non ergo per descensum Christi ad Inferos sancti patres sunt de Inferno educti.
Objection 3: Further, if you remove the cause, you remove the effect. But that Christ went down into hell was due to sin which was taken away by the Passion, as stated above (Question , Article ). Consequently, the holy Fathers were not delivered on Christ's descent into hell.
|Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in sermone de passione, quod Christus, quando ad Inferna descendit, portam Inferni et vectes ferreos confregit, et omnes iustos, qui originali peccato adstricti tenebantur, absolvit.
|On the contrary, Augustine says in the sermon on the Passion already quoted that when Christ descended into hell "He broke down the gate and 'iron bars' of hell, setting at liberty all the righteous who were held fast through original sin."
|Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, Christus, descendens ad Inferos, operatus est in virtute suae passionis. Per passionem autem Christi liberatum est genus humanum, non solum a peccato, sed etiam a reatu poenae, ut supra dictum est. Dupliciter autem homines reatu poenae erant adstricti. Uno modo, pro peccato actuali, quod quilibet in sua persona commiserat. Alio modo, pro peccato totius humanae naturae, quod a primo parente in omnes originaliter devenit, ut dicitur Rom. V. Cuius quidem peccati poena est mors corporalis et exclusio a vita gloriae, ut patet ex his quae dicuntur Gen. II et III, nam Deus hominem de Paradiso post peccatum eiecit, cui ante peccatum mortem fuerat comminatus si peccaret. Et ideo Christus, descendens ad Inferos, virtute suae passionis ab hoc reatu sanctos absolvit, quo erant a vita gloriae exclusi, ut non possent Deum per essentiam videre, in quo consistit perfecta hominis beatitudo, ut in secunda parte dictum est. Per hoc autem sancti patres detinebantur in Inferno, quod eis ad vitam gloriae, propter peccatum primi parentis, aditus non patebat. Et sic Christus, descendens ad Inferos, sanctos patres ab Inferis liberavit. Et hoc est quod dicitur Zach. IX, tu vero in sanguine testamenti tui eduxisti vinctos de lacu in quo non erat aqua. Et Coloss. II dicitur quod, exspolians principatus et potestates, scilicet infernales, auferendo Isaac et Iacob et ceteros iustos, traduxit eos, idest, longe ab hoc regno tenebrarum ad caelum duxit, ut Glossa ibidem dicit.
I answer that, As stated above (Article , ad 2), when Christ descended into hell He worked through the power of His Passion. But through Christ's Passion the human race was delivered not only from sin, but also from the debt of its penalty, as stated above (Question , Articles ,3). Now men were held fast by the debt of punishment in two ways: first of all for actual sin which each had committed personally: secondly, for the sin of the whole human race, which each one in his origin contracts from our first parent, as stated in Rm. 5 of which sin the penalty is the death of the body as well as exclusion from glory, as is evident from Gn. 2 and 3: because God cast out man from paradise after sin, having beforehand threatened him with death should he sin. Consequently, when Christ descended into hell, by the power of His Passion He delivered the saints from the penalty whereby they were excluded from the life of glory, so as to be unable to see God in His Essence, wherein man's beatitude lies, as stated in the FS, Question , Article . But the holy Fathers were detained in hell for the reason, that, owing to our first parent's sin, the approach to the life of glory was not opened. And so when Christ descended into hell He delivered the holy Fathers from thence. And this is what is written Zach. 9:11: "Thou also by the blood of Thy testament hast sent forth Thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein is no water." And (Col. 2:15) it is written that "despoiling the principalities and powers," i.e. "of hell, by taking out Isaac and Jacob, and the other just souls," "He led them," i.e. "He brought them far from this kingdom of darkness into heaven," as the gloss explains.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Augustinus ibi loquitur contra quosdam qui aestimabant antiquos iustos, ante adventum Christi, in Inferno doloribus poenarum fuisse subiectos. Unde, parum ante verba inducta, praemittit dicens, addunt quidam hoc beneficium antiquis etiam sanctis fuisse concessum, ut, dominus cum in Infernum venisset, ab illis doloribus solverentur. Sed quonam modo intelligatur Abraham, in cuius sinum pius etiam pauper ille susceptus est, in illis fuisse doloribus, ego quidem non video. Et ideo, cum postea subdit se nondum invenisse quid descensus Christi ad Inferos antiquis iustis contulerit, intelligendum est quantum ad absolutionem a doloribus poenarum. Contulit tamen eis quantum ad adeptionem gloriae, et per consequens solvit eorum dolorem quem patiebantur ex dilatione gloriae. Ex cuius tamen spe magnum gaudium habebant, secundum illud Ioan. VIII, Abraham, pater vester, exultavit ut videret diem meum. Et ideo subdit, a quibus eum, secundum beatificam praesentiam suae divinitatis, nunquam video recessisse, inquantum scilicet, etiam ante adventum Christi, erant beati in spe, licet nondum essent perfecte beati in re.
|Reply to Objection 1: Augustine is speaking there against such as maintained that the righteous of old were subject to penal sufferings before Christ's descent into hell. Hence shortly before the passage quoted he says: "Some add that this benefit was also bestowed upon the saints of old, that on the Lord's coming into hell they were freed from their sufferings. But I fail to see how Abraham, into whose bosom the poor man was received, was ever in such sufferings." Consequently, when he afterwards adds that "he had not yet discovered what Christ's descent into hell had brought to the righteous of old," this must be understood as to their being freed from penal sufferings. Yet Christ bestowed something upon them as to their attaining glory: and in consequence He dispelled the suffering which they endured through their glory being delayed: still they had great joy from the very hope thereof, according to Jn. 8:56: "Abraham your father rejoiced that he might see my day." And therefore he adds: "I fail to see that He ever departed, according to the beatific presence of His Godhead," that is, inasmuch as even before Christ's coming they were happy in hope, although not yet fully happy in fact.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod sancti patres, dum adhuc viverent, liberati fuerunt per fidem Christi ab omni peccato tam originali quam actuali, et reatu poenae actualium peccatorum, non tamen a reatu poenae originalis peccati, per quem excludebantur a gloria, nondum soluto pretio redemptionis humanae. Sicut etiam nunc fideles Christi liberantur per Baptismum a reatu actualium peccatorum, et a reatu originalis quantum ad exclusionem a gloria, remanent tamen adhuc obligati reatu originalis peccati quantum ad necessitatem corporaliter moriendi; quia renovantur secundum spiritum, sed nondum secundum carnem, secundum illud Rom. VIII, corpus quidem mortuum est propter peccatum, spiritus vero vivit propter iustificationem.
|Reply to Objection 2: The holy Fathers while yet living were delivered from original as well as actual sin through faith in Christ; also from the penalty of actual sins, but not from the penalty of original sin, whereby they were excluded from glory, since the price of man's redemption was not yet paid: just as the faithful are now delivered by baptism from the penalty of actual sins, and from the penalty of original sin as to exclusion from glory, yet still remain bound by the penalty of original sin as to the necessity of dying in the body because they are renewed in the spirit, but not yet in the flesh, according to Rm. 8:10: "The body indeed is dead, because of sin; but the spirit liveth, because of justification."
|Ad tertium dicendum quod statim, Christo mortem patiente, anima eius ad Infernum descendit, et suae passionis fructum exhibuit sanctis in Inferno detentis, quamvis ex loco illo non exierint, Christo apud Inferos commorante, quia ipsa Christi praesentia pertinebat ad cumulum gloriae.
|Reply to Objection 3: Directly Christ died His soul went down into hell, and bestowed the fruits of His Passion on the saints detained there; although they did not go out as long as Christ remained in hell, because His presence was part of the fulness of their glory.
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|Ad sextum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus aliquos damnatos ab Inferno liberavit. Dicitur enim Isaiae XXIV, congregabuntur congregatione unius fascis in lacum, et claudentur in carcerem, et post multos dies visitabuntur. Loquitur autem ibi de damnatis, qui militiam caeli adoraverant. Ergo videtur quod etiam damnati, Christo descendente ad Inferos, sunt visitati. Quod ad eorum liberationem videtur pertinere.
Objection 1: It would seem that Christ did deliver some of the lost from hell, because it is written (Is. 24:22): "And they shall be gathered together as in the gathering of one bundle into the pit, end they shall be shut up there in prison: and after many days they shall be visited." But there he is speaking of the lost, who "had adored the host of heaven," according to Jerome's commentary. Consequently it seems that even the lost were visited at Christ's descent into hell; and this seems to imply their deliverance.
|Praeterea, super illud Zach. IX, tu autem in sanguine testamenti tui eduxisti vinctos de lacu in quo non erat aqua, dicit Glossa, tu eos liberasti qui tenebantur vincti carceribus, ubi nulla misericordia eos refrigerabat, quam dives ille petebat. Sed soli damnati includuntur carceribus absque misericordia. Ergo Christus liberavit aliquos de Inferno damnatorum.
|Objection 2: Further, on Zach. 9:11: "Thou also by the blood of Thy testament hast sent forth Thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water," the gloss observes: "Thou hast delivered them who were held bound in prisons, where no mercy refreshed them, which that rich man prayed for." But only the lost are shut up in merciless prisons. Therefore Christ did deliver some from the hell of the lost.
|Praeterea, potentia Christi non fuit minor in Inferno quam in hoc mundo, utrobique enim operatus est per potentiam suae divinitatis. Sed in hoc mundo de quolibet statu aliquos liberavit. Ergo etiam in Inferno liberavit aliquos etiam de statu damnatorum.
|Objection 3: Further, Christ's power was not less in hell than in this world, because He worked in every place by the power of His Godhead. But in this world He delivered some persons of every state. Therefore, in hell also, He delivered some from the state of the lost.
|Sed contra est quod dicitur Osee XIII, ero mors tua, o mors. Morsus tuus, Inferne. Glossa, electos educendo, reprobos vero ibidem relinquendo. Sed soli reprobi sunt in Inferno damnatorum. Ergo per descensum Christi ad Inferos non sunt aliqui de Inferno damnatorum liberati.
|On the contrary, It is written (Osee 13:14): "O death, I will be thy death; O hell, I will be thy bite": upon which the gloss says: "By leading forth the elect, and leaving there the reprobate." But only the reprobate are in the hell of the lost. Therefore, by Christ's descent into hell none were delivered from the hell of the lost.
|Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, Christus, descendens ad Inferos, operatus est in virtute suae passionis. Et ideo eius descensus ad Inferos illis solis liberationis contulit fructum qui fuerunt passioni Christi coniuncti per fidem caritate formatam, per quam peccata tolluntur. Illi autem qui erant in Inferno damnatorum, aut penitus fidem passionis Christi non habuerant, sicut infideles, aut, si fidem habuerant, nullam conformitatem habebant ad caritatem Christi patientis. Unde nec a peccatis suis erant mundati. Et propter hoc descensus Christi ad Inferos non contulit eis liberationem a reatu poenae infernalis.
I answer that, As stated above (Article ), when Christ descended into hell He worked by the power of His Passion. Consequently, His descent into hell brought the fruits of deliverance to them only who were united to His Passion through faith quickened by charity, whereby sins are taken away. Now those detained in the hell of the lost either had no faith in Christ's Passion, as infidels; or if they had faith, they had no conformity with the charity of the suffering Christ: hence they could not be cleansed from their sins. And on this account Christ's descent into hell brought them no deliverance from the debt of punishment in hell.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, Christo descendente ad Inferos, omnes qui erant in quacumque parte Inferni, sunt aliqualiter visitati, sed quidam ad suam consolationem et liberationem; quidam autem ad suam confutationem et confusionem, scilicet damnati. Unde ibidem subditur, et erubescet luna, et confundetur sol, et cetera.
|Reply to Objection 1: When Christ descended into hell, all who were in any part of hell were visited in some respect: some to their consolation and deliverance, others, namely, the lost, to their shame and confusion. Accordingly the passage continues: "And the moon shall blush, and the sun be put to shame," etc.
|Potest etiam hoc referri ad visitationem qua visitabuntur in die iudicii, non ut liberentur, sed ut condemnentur amplius, secundum illud Sophon. I, visitabo super viros defixos in faecibus suis.
|This can also be referred to the visitation which will come upon them in the Day of Judgment, not for their deliverance, but for their yet greater confusion, according to Sophon. i, 12: "I will visit upon the men that are settled on their lees."
|Ad secundum dicendum quod, cum dicitur in Glossa, ubi nulla misericordia eos refrigerabat, intelligendum est quantum ad refrigerium perfectae liberationis. Quia sancti patres ab illis Inferni carceribus ante Christi adventum non poterant liberari.
|Reply to Objection 2: When the gloss says "where no mercy refreshed them," this is to be understood of the refreshing of full deliverance, because the holy Fathers could not be delivered from this prison of hell before Christ's coming.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod non fuit propter Christi impotentiam quod non sunt aliqui liberati de quolibet statu infernalium, sicut de quolibet statu mundanorum, sed propter diversam utrorumque conditionem. Nam homines quandiu hic vivunt, possunt ad fidem et caritatem converti, quia in hac vita non sunt homines confirmati in bono vel in malo, sicut post exitum ab hac vita.
|Reply to Objection 3: It was not due to any lack of power on Christ's part that some were not delivered from every state in hell, as out of every state among men in this world; but it was owing to the very different condition of each state. For, so long as men live here below, they can be converted to faith and charity, because in this life men are not confirmed either in good or in evil, as they are after quitting this life.
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|Ad septimum sic proceditur. Videtur quod pueri qui cum originali peccato decesserant, fuerint per descensum Christi liberati. Non enim tenebantur in Inferno nisi pro peccato originali, sicut et sancti patres. Sed sancti patres sunt ab Inferno liberati per Christum, ut supra dictum est. Ergo et pueri similiter per Christum sunt ab Inferno liberati.
Objection 1: It would seem that the children who died in original sin were delivered from hell by Christ's descending thither. For, like the holy Fathers, the children were kept in hell simply because of original sin. But the holy Fathers were delivered from hell, as stated above (Article ). Therefore the children were similarly delivered from hell by Christ.
|Praeterea, apostolus dicit, Rom. V, si unius delicto multi mortui sunt, multo magis gratia Dei et donum, in gratia unius hominis Iesu Christi, in plures abundavit. Sed propter peccatum primi parentis pueri cum solo peccato originali decedentes in Inferno detinentur. Ergo multo magis per gratiam Christi sunt ab Inferno liberati.
Objection 2: Further, the Apostle says (Rm. 5:15): "If by the offense of one, many died; much more the grace of God and the gift, by the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many." But the children who die with none but original sin are detained in hell owing to their first parent's sin. Therefore, much more were they delivered from hell through the grace of Christ.
|Praeterea, sicut Baptismus operatur in virtute passionis Christi, ita et descensus Christi ad Inferos, ut ex dictis patet. Sed pueri per Baptismum liberantur a peccato originali et ab Inferno. Ergo similiter liberati sunt per descensum Christi ad Inferos.
Objection 3: Further, as Baptism works in virtue of Christ's Passion, so also does Christ's descent into hell, as is clear from what has been said (Article , ad 2, Articles ,6). But through Baptism children are delivered from original sin and hell. Therefore, they were similarly delivered by Christ's descent into hell.
|Sed contra est quod apostolus dicit, Rom. III, quod Deus proposuit Christum propitiatorem per fidem in sanguine eius. Sed pueri qui cum solo peccato originali decesserant, nullo modo fuerant participes fidei. Ergo non perceperunt fructum propitiationis Christi, ut per ipsum ab Inferno liberarentur.
On the contrary, The Apostle says (Rm. 3:25): "God hath proposed Christ to be a propitiation, through faith in His blood." But the children who had died with only original sin were in no wise sharers of faith in Christ. Therefore, they did not receive the fruits of Christ's propitiation, so as to be delivered by Him from hell.
|Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, descensus Christi ad Inferos in illis solis effectum habuit qui per fidem et caritatem passioni Christi coniungebantur, in cuius virtute descensus Christi ad Inferos liberatorius erat. Pueri autem qui cum originali decesserant, nullo modo fuerant coniuncti passioni Christi per fidem et dilectionem, neque enim fidem propriam habere potuerant, quia non habuerant usum liberi arbitrii; neque per fidem parentum aut per aliquod fidei sacramentum fuerant a peccato originali mundati. Et ideo descensus Christi ad Inferos huiusmodi pueros non liberavit ab Inferno. Et praeterea per hoc sancti patres ab Inferno sunt liberati quia sunt ad gloriam divinae visionis admissi, ad quam nullus potest pervenire nisi per gratiam, secundum illud Rom. VI, gratia Dei vita aeterna. Cum igitur pueri cum originali decedentes gratiam non habuerint, non fuerunt ab Inferno liberati.
I answer that, As stated above (Article ), Christ's descent into hell had its effect of deliverance on them only who through faith and charity were united to Christ's Passion, in virtue whereof Christ's descent into hell was one of deliverance. But the children who had died in original sin were in no way united to Christ's Passion by faith and love: for, not having the use of free will, they could have no faith of their own; nor were they cleansed from original sin either by their parents' faith or by any sacrament of faith. Consequently, Christ's descent into hell did not deliver the children from thence. And furthermore, the holy Fathers were delivered from hell by being admitted to the glory of the vision of God, to which no one can come except through grace; according to Rm. 6:23: "The grace of God is life everlasting." Therefore, since children dying in original sin had no grace, they were not delivered from hell.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod sancti patres, etsi adhuc tenerentur adstricti reatu originalis peccati inquantum respicit humanam naturam, tamen liberati erant per fidem Christi ab omni macula peccati, et ideo capaces erant illius liberationis quam Christus attulit descendens ad Inferos. Sed hoc de pueris dici non potest, ut ex supra dictis patet.
|Reply to Objection 1: The holy Fathers, although still held bound by the debt of original sin, in so far as it touches human nature, were nevertheless delivered from all stain of sin by faith in Christ: consequently, they were capable of that deliverance which Christ brought by descending into hell. But the same cannot be said of the children, as is evident from what was said above.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod, cum apostolus dicit, gratia Dei in plures abundavit, ly plures non est accipiendum comparative, quasi plures numero sint salvati per gratiam Christi quam damnati per peccatum Adae, sed absolute, ac si diceret quod gratia unius Christi abundavit in multos, sicut et peccatum unius Adae pervenit ad multos. Sed sicut peccatum Adae ad eos tantum pervenit qui per seminalem rationem carnaliter ab eo descenderunt, ita gratia Christi ad illos tantum pervenit qui spirituali regeneratione eius membra sunt facti. Quod non competit pueris decedentibus cum originali peccato.
|Reply to Objection 2: When the Apostle says that the grace of God "hath abounded unto many," the word "many" [*The Vulgate reads 'plures,' i.e. 'many more'] is to be taken, not comparatively, as if more were saved by Christ's grace than lost by Adam's sin: but absolutely, as if he said that the grace of the one Christ abounded unto many, just as Adam's sin was contracted by many. But as Adam's sin was contracted by those only who descended seminally from him according to the flesh, so Christ's grace reached those only who became His members by spiritual regeneration: which does not apply to children dying in original sin.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod Baptismus adhibetur hominibus in hac vita, in qua homo potest transmutari de culpa in gratiam. Sed descensus Christi ad Inferos exhibitus fuit animabus post hanc vitam, ubi non sunt capaces transmutationis praedictae. Et ideo per Baptismum pueri liberantur a peccato originali et ab Inferno, non autem per descensum Christi ad Inferos.
|Reply to Objection 3: Baptism is applied to men in this life, in which man's state can be changed from sin into grace: but Christ's descent into hell was vouchsafed to the souls after this life when they are no longer capable of the said change. And consequently by baptism children are delivered from original sin and from hell, but not by Christ's descent into hell.
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|Ad octavum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Christus suo descensu ad Inferos liberaverit animas a Purgatorio. Dicit enim Augustinus, in epistola ad Evodium, quia evidentia testimonia et Infernum commemorant et dolores, nulla causa occurrit cur illo credatur venisse salvator, nisi ut ab eisdem doloribus salvos faceret. Sed utrum omnes quos in eis invenit, an quosdam, quos illo beneficio dignos iudicavit, adhuc requiro. Tamen venisse Christum apud Inferos, et in eorum doloribus constitutis hoc beneficium praestitisse, non dubito. Non autem praestitit beneficium liberationis damnatis, sicut supra dictum est. Praeter eos autem nulli sunt in doloribus poenalibus constituti nisi illi qui sunt in Purgatorio. Ergo Christus animas de Purgatorio liberavit.
Objection 1: It would seem that Christ by His descent into hell delivered souls from Purgatory---for Augustine says (Ep. ad Evod. clxiv): "Because evident testimonies speak of hell and its pains, there is no reason for believing that the Saviour came thither except to rescue men from those same pains: but I still wish to know whether it was all whom He found there, or some whom He deemed worthy of such a benefit. Yet I do not doubt that Christ went into hell, and granted this favor to them who were suffering from its pains." But, as stated above (Article ), He did not confer the benefit of deliverance upon the lost: and there are no others in a state of penal suffering except those in Purgatory. Consequently Christ delivered souls from Purgatory.
|Praeterea, ipsa animae Christi praesentia non minorem effectum habuit quam sacramenta ipsius. Sed per sacramenta Christi liberantur animae a Purgatorio, et praecipue per Eucharistiae sacramentum, ut infra dicetur. Ergo multo magis per praesentiam Christi ad Inferos descendentis sunt animae a Purgatorio liberatae.
Objection 2: Further, the very presence of Christ's soul had no less effect than His sacraments have. But souls are delivered from Purgatory by the sacraments, especially by the sacrament of the Eucharist, as shall be shown later (XP, Question , Article ). Therefore much more were souls delivered from Purgatory by the presence of Christ descending into hell.
|Praeterea, Christus quoscumque curavit in hac vita, totaliter curavit, ut Augustinus dicit, in libro de poenitentia. Et Ioan. VII dominus dicit, totum hominem salvum feci in sabbato. Sed Christus eos qui in Purgatorio erant, liberavit a reatu poenae damni, quo excludebantur a gloria. Ergo etiam liberavit eos a reatu poenae Purgatorii.
Objection 3: Further, as Augustine says (De Poenit. ix), those whom Christ healed in this life He healed completely. Also, our Lord says (Jn. 7:23): "I have healed the whole man on the sabbath-day." But Christ delivered them who were in Purgatory from the punishment of the pain of loss, whereby they were excluded from glory. Therefore, He also delivered them from the punishment of Purgatory.
|Sed contra est quod Gregorius dicit, XIII Moral., dum conditor ac redemptor noster, claustra Inferni penetrans, electorum exinde animas eduxit, nos illo ire non patitur, unde iam alios descendendo liberavit. Patitur autem nos ire ad Purgatorium. Ergo, descendens ad Inferos, animas a Purgatorio non liberavit.
|On the contrary, Gregory says (Moral. xiii): "Since our Creator and Redeemer, penetrating the bars of hell, brought out from thence the souls of the elect, He does not permit us to go thither, from whence He has already by descending set others free." But He permits us to go to Purgatory. Therefore, by descending into hell, He did not deliver souls from Purgatory.
|Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut saepe dictum est, descensus Christi ad Inferos liberatorius fuit in virtute passionis ipsius. Passio autem eius non habuit temporalem virtutem et transitoriam sed sempiternam, secundum illud Heb. X, una oblatione consummavit sanctificatos in sempiternum. Et sic patet quod non habuit tunc maiorem efficaciam passio Christi quam habeat nunc. Et ideo illi qui fuerunt tales quales nunc sunt qui in Purgatorio detinentur, non fuerunt a Purgatorio liberati per descensum Christi ad Inferos. Si qui autem inventi sunt ibi tales quales etiam nunc virtute passionis Christi a Purgatorio liberantur, tales nihil prohibet per descensum Christi ad Inferos a Purgatorio esse liberatos.
I answer that, As we have stated more than once (Article , ad 2, Articles ,6,7), Christ's descent into hell was one of deliverance in virtue of His Passion. Now Christ's Passion had a virtue which was neither temporal nor transitory, but everlasting, according to Heb. 10:14: "For by one oblation He hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified." And so it is evident that Christ's Passion had no greater efficacy then than it has now. Consequently, they who were such as those who are now in Purgatory, were not set free from Purgatory by Christ's descent into hell. But if any were found such as are now set free from Purgatory by virtue of Christ's Passion, then there was nothing to hinder them from being delivered from Purgatory by Christ's descent into hell.
|Ad primum ergo dicendum quod ex illa auctoritate Augustini non potest concludi quod omnes illi qui in Purgatorio erant, fuerint a Purgatorio liberati, sed quod aliquibus eorum fuerit hoc beneficium collatum, illis scilicet qui iam sufficienter purgati erant; vel etiam qui, dum adhuc viverent, meruerunt per fidem et dilectionem, et devotionem ad mortem Christi, ut, eo descendente, liberarentur a temporali Purgatorii poena.
|Reply to Objection 1: From this passage of Augustine it cannot be concluded that all who were in Purgatory were delivered from it, but that such a benefit was bestowed upon some persons, that is to say, upon such as were already cleansed sufficiently, or who in life, by their faith and devotion towards Christ's death, so merited, that when He descended, they were delivered from the temporal punishment of Purgatory.
|Ad secundum dicendum quod virtus Christi operatur in sacramentis per modum sanationis et expiationis cuiusdam. Unde sacramentum Eucharistiae liberat homines a Purgatorio inquantum est quoddam sacrificium satisfactorium pro peccato. Descensus autem Christi ad Inferos non fuit satisfactorius. Operabatur tamen in virtute passionis, quae fuit satisfactoria, ut supra habitum est, sed erat satisfactoria in generali, cuius virtutem oportebat applicari ad unumquemque per aliquid specialiter ad ipsum pertinens. Et ideo non oportet quod per descensum Christi ad Inferos omnes fuerint a Purgatorio liberati.
Reply to Objection 2: Christ's power operates in the sacraments by way of healing and expiation. Consequently, the sacrament of the Eucharist delivers men from Purgatory inasmuch as it is a satisfactory sacrifice for sin. But Christ's descent into hell was not satisfactory; yet it operated in virtue of the Passion, which was satisfactory, as stated above (Question , Article ), but satisfactory in general, since its virtue had to be applied to each individual by something specially personal (Question , Article , ad 4,5). Consequently, it does not follow of necessity that all were delivered from Purgatory by Christ's descent into hell.
|Ad tertium dicendum quod illi defectus a quibus Christus simul in hoc mundo homines liberabat, erant personales, proprie ad unumquemque pertinentes. Sed exclusio a gloria Dei erat quidam defectus generalis pertinens ad totam humanam naturam. Et ideo nihil prohibet eos qui erant in Purgatorio, per Christum esse liberatos ab exclusione a gloria, non autem a reatu poenae Purgatorii, qui pertinet ad proprium defectum. Sicut e converso sancti patres, ante Christi adventum, liberati sunt a propriis defectibus, non autem a defectu communi, sicut supra dictum est.
Reply to Objection 3: Those defects from which Christ altogether delivered men in this world were purely personal, and concerned the individual; whereas exclusion from God's glory was a general defect and common to all human nature. Consequently, there was nothing to prevent those detained in Purgatory being delivered by Christ from their privation of glory, but not from the debt of punishment in Purgatory which pertains to personal defect. Just as on the other hand, the holy Fathers before Christ's coming were delivered from their personal defects, but not from the common defect, as was stated above (Article , ad 1; Question , Article , ad 1).