He who labors as he prays lifts his heart to God with his hands. --St. Benedict of Nursia
Started by Kephapaulos, June 19, 2016, 05:35:22 PM
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Quote"Being, for St. Thomas, is a notion, not univocal but analogous, since otherwise it could not be divided and diversified. A univocal idea (e. g.: genus) is diversified by differences extrinsic to genus (animality, e. g.: by specific animal differences). Now, nothing is extrinsic to being (ens). Here Parmenides enters. Being, he says, cannot be something other than being, and the only other thing than being is nothing, is non-being, and non-being is not. St. Thomas replies: 'Parmenides and his followers were deceived in this: They used the word being (ens) as if it were univocal, one in idea and nature, as if it were a genus. This is an impossible position. Being (ens) is not a genus, since it is found in things generically diversified.' [In Metaph.: Bk. 1, chap. 5, lect. 9. See the fourth of the twenty-four Thomistic theses]."Duns Scotus returns in a manner to the position of Parmenides, that being is a univocal notion. Suarez, seeking a middle way between Aquinas and Scotus, maintains that the objective concept of being (ens) is simply one (simpliciter unus): and that consequently everything that is in any manner (e. g.: matter and essence) is being in act (ens in actu). This viewpoint granted, we can no longer conceive pure potency. It would be extra ens, hence, simply nothing. The Aristotelian notion of real potency (medium between actuality and nothing) disappears, and the argument of Parmenides is insoluble."We understand now why, shortly after the Council of Trent, a Thomist, Reginaldus, O. P.: formulated as follows the three principles of St. Thomas:"Ens (being) is a notion transcendent and analogous, not univocal.God is pure act, God alone is His own existence.Things absolute have species from themselves; things relative from something else."
Quote from: AriewThomasScotus1. The proper object of the human intellect is the quiddity of material being (quidditas rei materiali)11*. The proper object of the human intellect is being in general (ens in quantum est)22. Only analogical predication holds between God and creatures32*. The concept of being holds univocally between God and creatures43. Man is a unity of single form (the rational soul)53*. Man is a composite of a plurality of forms (rational, sensitive, and vegetative souls)64. Prime matter is pure potency 74*. Prime matter can subsist independently of form by God's omnipotence 85. The principle of individuation is signate matter (materia signata quantitate)95*. The principle of individuation is a haecceity, or form106. The immobility of the universe as a whole is the frame of reference for motion116*. Space is radically relative: there is no absolute frame of reference for motion127. Without motion there would be no time13 7*. Time is independent of motion 14Aquinas Summa Theologica I, quaest. 84, art. 7.Scotus Opera Omnia, Opus Oxoniense I, dist. 3, quaest. 3.Aquinas Summa Theologica I, quaest. 13, art. 5.Scotus Opera Omnia, Opus Oxoniense, II, dist. 3, quaest. 2.Aquinas Summa Theologica, I, quaest. 76, art. 3.Scotus Opera Omnia, Opus Oxoniense, IV, dist. 11, quaest. 3.Aquinas Summa Theologica I, quaest. 66, art. 1.Scotus Opera Omnia, Opus Oxoniense, II, dist. 12, quaest. 1.Aquinas De Ente et Essentia, chap. 3.Scotus Opera Omnia, Opus Oxoniense, II, dist. 3, quaest. 6.Aquinas De Physica, IV, lectio 8.Scotus Opera Omnia, Quaestiones Quodlibetales, quaest. XII.Aquinas De Physica, IV, lectio 16-17.Scotus Opera Omnia, Quaestiones Quodlibetales, quaest. XI.